Effect of Combined Use of various Anti-microbial Materials on Brewing of Low Salted Kochujang

저식염 고추장 양조시 항균물질 혼합첨가의 영향

  • Park, Seon-Ju (Department of Food and Nutrition, Mokpo National University) ;
  • Kim, Dong-Han (Department of Food and Nutrition, Mokpo National University)
  • 박선주 (목포대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 김동한 (목포대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2007.12.31

Abstract

Effect of combined use of anti-microbial materials, such as ethanol, mustard and chitosan, on the quality of low salted kochujang was investigated during fermentation at $20^{\circ}C$ for 12 weeks. Viable cells of yeast increased remarkably during fermentation, but increasing ratio was significantly low in ethanol-mustard added kochujang. Activity of ${\beta}-amylase$ was high in anti-microbial material added kochujang, whereas ${\alpha}-amylase$ and protease activities were low in those groups. Water activity decreased during fermentation with being low in the control kochujang prepared with normal-salt without anti-microbial materials. Hunter L-, a- and b-values of kochujang increased during fermentation, and the degree of increase in total color difference $({\Delta}E)$ was low in ethanol added kochujang. Titratable acidity of kochujang was decreased in anti-microbial materials added group at late aging period, and oxidation-reduction potential was low in the control kochujang. Total sugar and reducing sugar contents of kochujang were high in ethanol-mustard added kochujang. Ethanol contents of kochujang increased at late aging period, with high values in ethanol-chitosan added kochujang. Amino nitrogen content increased during middle of fermentation, and ammonia nitrogen content of kochujang decreased in ethanol-mustard-chitosan added group during fermentation. After 12 weeks fermentation, sensory results showed that ethanol or ethanol-mustard added kochujang were the highest in color and flavor with the highest overall acceptability.

References

  1. Lee, T. S. (1979) Studies on the brewing of kochujang (red papper paste) by the addition of yeasts. J. Korean Agri. Chem. Soc. 22, 65-90
  2. Cho, H. O., Kim, J. G., Lee, H. J., Kang, J. H. and Lee, T. S. (1981) Brewing method and composition of traditional kochujang (red pepper paste) in junrabook-do area. J. Korean Agric. Chem. Soc. 24, 21-28
  3. Cho, H. O., Park, S. A. and Kim, J. G. (1981) Effect of traditional and improved kochujang koji on the quality improvement of traditional kochujang. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 13, 319-327
  4. Choi, J. Y., Lee, T. S. and Noh. B. S. (2000) Quality characteristics of the kochujang prepared with mixture of meju and koji during fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 32, 125-131
  5. Oh, H. I., Shon, S. H. and Kim, J. M. (2000) Physicochemical properties of kochujang prepared with Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus licheniformis and Saccharomyces rouxii during fermentation. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29, 357-363
  6. Lee, J. M., Jang, J. H., Oh, N. S. and Han, M.S. (1996) Bacterial distribution of kochujang. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 28, 260-266
  7. Jung, Y. C., Choi, W. J., Oh, N.S. and Han, M. S. (1996) Distribution and physiological characteristics of yeasts in traditional and commercial kochujang. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 28, 253-259
  8. Lee, K. S. and Kim, D. H. (1985) Trial manufacture of lowsalted kochujang (red pepper soybean paste) by the addition of alcohol. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 17, 146-154
  9. Kwan, D. J., Jung, J. W., Kim, J. H., Park, J. Y., Yoo, J. Y., Koo, Y. J. and Chung, K. S. (1996) Studies on establishment of optimal aging time of Korean traditional kochujang. Agric. Chem. Biotech. 39, 127-133
  10. Yeo, Y. K. and Kim, Z. U. (1978) Studies on the standardization of the processing conditional of Ko-Choo-Jang (red pepper paste). J. Korean Agric. Chem. Soc. 21, 16-21
  11. Kim, Y. S., Cha, J., Jung, S. W., Park, E. J. and Kim, J. O. (1994) Changes of physicochemical characteristics and development of new quality indices for industry-produced koji kochujang. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 26, 453-458
  12. Moon, T. W. and Kim, Z. U. (1988) Some chemical physical characteristics and acceptability of kochujang from various starch sources. J. Korean Agric. Chem. Soc. 31, 387-393
  13. Shin, D. H., Kim, D. H., Choi, U., Lim, M. S. and An, E. Y. (1997) Physicochemical characteristics of traditional kochujang prepared with various raw materials. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 29, 907-912
  14. Kim, Y. S. (1993) Studies on the changes in physicochemical characteristics and volatile flavor compounds of traditional kochujang during fermentation. Ph. D. thesis, University of King Sejong, Seoul, Korea
  15. Oh, J. Y., Kim, Y. S. and Shin, D. H. (2002) Changes in physicochemical characteristics of low-salted kochujang with natural preservatives during fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 34, 835-841
  16. Yamamoto, Y., Higashi, K. and Yoshii, H. (1984) Inhibitory activity of ethanol on food spoilage bacteria. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi. 31, 531-535 https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk1962.31.8_531
  17. Kim, D. H. and Lee, J. S. (2001) Effect of condiments on the physicochemical characteristics of traditional kochujang during fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 33, 353-360
  18. Kim, D. H. and Yang, S. E. (2004) Fermentation characteristics of low salted kochujang prepared with sub-materials. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 36, 97-104
  19. Shin, D. H., Ahn, E. Y., Kim, Y. S. and Oh, J. A. (2000) Fermentation characteristics of kochujang containing horseradish or mustard. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 32, 1350-1357
  20. Kim, D. H. (2005) Fermentation characteristics of low salted kochujang prepared with mixture of sub-materials. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 37, 449-455
  21. Fuwa, H. A. (1954) A new method for microdetermination of amylase activity by the use of amylose as the substrate. J. Biochem. 41, 583-588 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a126476
  22. Anson, M. L. (1938) Estimation of pepsin, trypsin, papain and cathepsin with hemoglobin. J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 79-89 https://doi.org/10.1085/jgp.22.1.79
  23. Institute of Miso Technologists. (1968) Official methods of miso analysis Tokyo, Japan. pp. 1-34
  24. SAS Institute. (1992) Inc. SAS User's Guide. Statistical Analysis System Institute, Cary, NC, USA
  25. James, M. J. (2000) Modern Food Microbiology (6th ed.) APAC. Nevada, USA. pp. 45-47
  26. Kim, D. H., Yook, H. S., Youn, K. C., Sohn, C. B. and Byun, M.W. (2001) Changes of microbiological and general quality characteristics of gamma irradiated kochujang (fermented hot pepper paste). Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 33, 72-77