DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Analysis of Trans Fatty Acid Content in Processed Foods and Meat Products

가공식품과 육가공품의 트랜스 지방산 함량 조사

  • Published : 2007.12.30

Abstract

Small amounts of trans fatty acids exist naturally in beef and dairy foods. Also, they can be produced in the process of partial hydrogenation to manufacture shortning or margarine. They can provide a better palatability and shelf life. According to the recently studies, trans fatty acids can raise health risk such as heart diseases and coronary artery diseases. They can also increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and decrease high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood plasma, therefore increasing the risk of atherosclerosis and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine total lipids and trans fatty acids (TFAs) content in processed foods and meat products. The analysis of trans fatty acids was performed in 28 samples of donuts, 18 samples of bakeries, 4 samples of frozen doughs, 2 samples of popcorns, and 4 samples of meat products (ham, sausage, nuget, and bacon). Total lipids in processed foods and meat products were extracted by chloroform-Methanol method and acid digestion, respectively. They were analyzed by gas chromatography using a SP-2560 column and flame ionization detector. The amounts of TFAs per 100 g of foods were 0-3.3% (0.74% on average) in donuts, 0.2-5.8% (1.18% on average) in bakeries, 0.2-6.3% (1.93% on average) in frozen doughs, and 0-5.8% in popcorns. Meat products such as ham, sausage, and nuget analyzed 0.1% of TFAs, respectively and trans fatty acids in bacon were not detected. As a result, the distribution of TFAs in processed foods was widely ranged from O% to 6.3% according to manufacturers and types of products, whereas the content of TFAs in meat products ranged from 0% to 0.1%.

Keywords

trans fatty acids;meat product;processed foods;gas chromatography

References

  1. Bligh, E. G. and Dyer, W. J. (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37, 911-917 https://doi.org/10.1139/o59-099
  2. Henninger, M. and Ulberth, F. (1997) Trans fatty acid content of convenience food. Z. Erahrungswiss. 36, 161-168 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01611395
  3. Innis, S. M. and King, D. J. (1999) Trans fatty acids in human milk are inversely associated with concentrations of essential all-cis n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and determine trans, but not n-6 and n-3, fatty acids in plasma lipids of breast-fed infants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70, 383-390 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/70.3.383
  4. Kolezko, B. (1992) Trans fatty acids may impair biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated and growth in man. Acta Paediatr. 81, 302-306 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.1992.tb12230.x
  5. Lee, K. B., Han, M. K., and Lee, M. S. (1998) Effect of deodorizing temperature on physicochemical characteristics in com oil. Korean J. Food Nutr. 11, 26-30
  6. Niemeier, H. M., Raynor, H. A., Lioyd-Richardson, E. E., Rogers, M. L., and Wing, R. R. (2006) Fast food consumption and breakfast skipping: Predictors of weight gain from adolescence to adulthood in a nationally representative sample. J. Adolesc Health. 39, 842-849 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.07.001
  7. Yan, H. (2000) Gas chromatographic retention time rule and mass spectrometric fragmentation rule of fatty acids and its application in food. Chin. J. Front Health Quar. 23, 175-178
  8. Su, L. J. and Arab, L. (2006) Salad and raw vegetable consumption and nutritional status in the adult US population: result from the the third national health and nutrition examination survey. J. Am Diet Assoc. 106, 1394-1404 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2006.06.004
  9. AOCS. 1989. AOCS Official Method Ce 2-66, Preparation of methyl esters of long-chain fatty acids. In official and tentative Methods of American oil chemists' society. Champaign, IL, USA
  10. Barba, G. and Russo, P. (2006) Dairy foods, dietary calcium and obesity: A short review of the evidence. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 16, 445-451 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2006.04.004
  11. Aro, A., Jauhiainen, M., Partanen, R., Salminen, I., and Mutanen, M. (1997) Stearic acid, trans fatty acids, and dietary fat: effects on serum and lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein (a), and lipid transfer proteins in healthy subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65, 1419-1426 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/65.5.1419
  12. Emken, E. A. (1984) Nutrition and biochemistry of trans positional fatty acid isomers in hydrogenated oils. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 4, 339-377 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.04.070184.002011
  13. Cho, Y. J. and Sugano, M. (1985) Content of trans fatty acids in Korean margarine. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 17, 219-223
  14. Ascherio, A. and Willet, C. (1997) Health effects of trans fatty acids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66, 1106-1010
  15. Mickleborough, T. D. and Forgarty, A. (2006) Dietary sodium intake and asthma: An epidemiological and clinical review. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 60, 1616-24 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.01103.x
  16. Noh, K. H., Lee, K. Y., Moon, J. W., Lee, M. O., and Song, Y. S (1999) Trans fatty acid content of processed foods in Korean diet. J Korean. Soc. Food. Sci. Nutr. 28, 1191-1200
  17. Houwelingen, A. C. V. and Hornstra G. (1994) Trans fatty acids in early human development, in fatty acids and lipid: Biological aspects. In World Review of Nutrition and Diet. Simopoulos, C., Karger, T. E., eds. S. Karger, A G., Basel. 175-178
  18. Azadbakht, L., Mirniran, P., Esmaillzadeh, A., and Azizi, F. (2006) Dietary diversity score and cardiovascular risk factors in tehranjan adults. Public Health Nutr. 9, 728-736
  19. Judd, J. T., Clevidence, B. A., Muesing, R. A., Wittes, J., Sunkin, M. E., and Podczasy, J. J. (1994) Dietary trans fatty acids : effect on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of healthy men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59, 861-868 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/59.4.861
  20. Lee, J. R and Um, Y. H. (2004) A Study of Attitude toward Healthy Menu. Korean J. Cut. Res. 10, 16-29
  21. 식품의약품안전청, 2004년-2006년 트랜스지방 모니터링 결과 (2007)
  22. Shapiro, S. (1997) Do trans fatty acids increase the risk of coronary artery disease? A critique of the epidemiologic evidence. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66, 1011-1017 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/66.4.1011S
  23. IUFoST News. (2007) International Union of Food Science and Technology Scientific Council Information Bulletin #4-Trans Fatty Acids. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 40, 383-387 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2006.06.004
  24. Paula, A., Lucca, B., and Tepper, J. (1994) Fat replacers and the functionality offat in foods. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 5, 12-19 https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-2244(94)90043-4
  25. Bethesda, M. D. (1996) Position paper on trans fatty acids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 63, 663-670 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/63.5.663
  26. Daugherty, C. E. and Lento, H. G. (1983) Cloroform-methanol extraction method for determination of fat in foods: collaborative study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 66, 927-932
  27. Wijendran, V., Pronczuk, A., Bertoli, C., and Hayes, K. C. (2003) Dietary trans-18:1 raises plasma triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol when replacing either 16:0 or 18:0 in gerbils. J. Nutr. Biochem. 14, 584-590 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(03)00106-2
  28. Lichtenstein, A. H. (1998) Trans fatty acid and blood lipid levels, LP (a), parameters of cholesterol metabolism, and hemostatic factors. J Nutr. Biochem. 9, 224-248
  29. Mozaffarian, D., Katan, M. B., Ascherio, A., Stampfer, M. J., and Willett, W. C. (2006). Trans fatty acid and cardiovascular disease. New Engl. J. Med. 354, 1601-1613 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra054035

Cited by

  1. Analysis of Trans Fatty Acid Content in Retort Food, Powdered Milk, Biscuit and Pizza Products vol.28, pp.2, 2008, https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2008.28.2.240
  2. The effect of Arabic gum on frozen dough properties and the sensory assessments of the bread produced vol.48, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12223