An Arachidonic Acid Metabolizing Enzyme, 8S-Lipoxygenase, in Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis

  • Kim Eun-Jung (Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan)
  • Published : 2006.08.01

Abstract

The involvement of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzyme, lipoxygenase (LOX), in the development of particular tumors in humans has gradually been acknowledged and LOX has emerged as a novel target to prevent or treat human cancers. In the mouse skin carcinogenesis model, which provides an excellent model to study multistage nature of human cancer development, many studies have shown that some of the LOXs are constitutively upregulated in their expression. Moreover, application of LOX inhibitors effectively reduced tumor burdens, which implicates the involvement of LOX in mouse skin tumor development as well. 8S-LOX is a recently cloned LOX, which is specifically expressed in mouse skin after 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment but not in normal skin. Unlike other members of the LOX 'family' expressed in mouse skin, this TPA-induced expression of 8S-LOX is prominent only in the skin of the TPA tumor promotion-sensitive strains of mice (SENCAR, CD-1, and NMRI) but not in the promotion-resistant C57BL/6J mice. This is a very unique phenomenon among strains of mice. Constitutive upregulation of 8S-LOX was also found in early stage papillomas and the expression was gradually reduced as the tumors became malignant. Based on these observations, it has been thought that 8S-LOX is involved in TPA-induced tumor promotion as well as in tumor conversion from papillomas to carcinomas. In accordance with this hypothesis, several studies have suggested possible roles of 8S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), an AA metabolite of 8S-LOX, in mouse skin tumor development. A clastogenic activity of 8S-HETE was demonstrated in primary keratinocytes and a close correlation between the levels of etheno-DNA adducts and 8S-HETE during skin carcinogenesis was also reported. On the other hand, it has been reported that 8S-LOX protein expression is restricted to a differentiated keratinocyte compartment Moreover, reported findings on the ability of 8S-HETE to cause keratinocyte differentiation appear to be contrary to the procarcinogenic features of the 8S-LOX expression, presenting a question as to the role of 8S-LOX during mouse skin carcinogenesis. In this review, molecular and biological features of 8S-LOX as well as current views on the functional role of 8S-LOX/8S-HETE during mouse skin carcinogenesis are presented.

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