Marine Controlled-source Electromagnetic Surveys for Hydrocarbon Exploration

탄화수소 탐지를 위한 해양 인공송신원 전자탐사

  • Kim, Hee-Joon (Department of Environmental Exploration Engineering, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Han, Nu-Ree (Department of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, Seoul National University) ;
  • Choi, Ji-Hyang (Department of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, Seoul National University) ;
  • Nam, Myung-Jin (Groundwater and Geothermal Resources Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) ;
  • Song, Yoon-Ho (Groundwater and Geothermal Resources Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) ;
  • Suh, Jung-Hee (Department of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, Seoul National University)
  • 김희준 (부경대학교 환경탐사공학과) ;
  • 한누리 (서울대학교 지구환경시스템공학부) ;
  • 최지향 (서울대학교 지구환경시스템공학부) ;
  • 남명진 (한국지질자원연구원 지하수지열연구부) ;
  • 송윤호 (한국지질자원연구원 지하수지열연구부) ;
  • 서정희 (서울대학교 지구환경시스템공학부)
  • Published : 2006.05.31

Abstract

The shortage of proven hydrocarbon reserves has resulted in exploration progressing from the offshore into progressively deeper water of the continental shelf. Despite the success of seismic acquisition at ever greater depths, there are marine geological terrenes in which the interpretation of seismic data is difficult, such regions dominated by scattering or high reflectivity that is characteristic of carbonate reefs, volcanic cover and submarine permafrost. A marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has recently been applied to the oil and gas exploration thanks to its high-resistivity characteristics of the hydrocarbon. In particular, this method produces better results in terms of sensitivity under the deep water environment rather than the shallow water. Only in the last five years has the relevance of CSEM been recognized by oil companies who now use it to help them make exploration drilling decisions. Initial results are most promising and several contractors now offer magnetotelluric and CSEM services.

References

  1. Eidesmo, To, Ellingsrud, So, MacGregor, L. M., Constable, S., Sinha, M. C., Johansen, S., Kong, EN., and Westerdahl, H., 2002, Sea bed logging (SBL), a new method for remote and direct identification of hydrocarbon filled layers in deepwater areas, First Break, 20, 144-152
  2. Ellingsrud, S., Eidesmo, T., Johansen, S., Sinha, M. C., MacGregor, L. M., and Constable, S., 2002, Remote sensing of hydrocarbon layers by seabed logging (SBL): Results from a cruise offshore Angola, Leading Edge, 21, 972-982 https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1518433
  3. Johansen, S., Amundsen, H. E. E, Rosten, T., Ellingsrud, S., Eidesmo, T., and Bhuyian, A. H., 2005, Subsurface hydrocarbons detected by electromagnetic sounding, First Break, 23, March, 31-36
  4. MacGregor, L. M., Constable, S., and Sinha, M. C., 1998, The RAMESSES experiment-III: Controlled source electromagnetic sounding of the Reykjanes Ridge at $57^{\circ}$45', Journal of Geophysical Research, 135, 773-789 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-246X.1998.00705.x
  5. MacGregor, L. M., Constable, S., and Sinha, M. C., 2001, Electrical resistivity structures of the Valu Fa Ridge, Lau basin, from marine controlled source electromagnetic sounding, Geophysical Journal International, 146, 217-236 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-246X.2001.00440.x
  6. Zhdanov, M. S., Traynin, P., and Portniaguine, O., 1995, Resistivity imaging by time domain electromagnetic migration (TDEMM), Exploration Geophysics, 26, 186-194 https://doi.org/10.1071/EG995186
  7. McBarnet, A., 2004, All at Sea with EM, Offihore Eng., 29, 20-22
  8. Constable, S., and Cox, C., 1996, Marine controlled source electromagnetic sounding - II: The PEGASUS experiment, Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 5519-5530
  9. Schwalenberg, K., Willoughby, E., Mir, R., and Edwards, N., 2005, Marine gas hydrate electromagnetic signatures in Cascadia and their correlation with seismic blank zones, First Break, 23, April, 57-63
  10. Constable, S., and Weiss, C. J., 2006, Mapping thin resistors and hydrocarbons with marine EM methods: Insights from lD modeling, Geophysics, 71, G43-G51 https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2187748
  11. Zhdanov, M. S., and Frenkel, M. A., 1983, The solution of the inverse problems on the basis of the analytical continuation of the transient electromagnetic field in reverse time, Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity, 35, 745-765
  12. Chave, A. Do, and Cox, C., 1982, Controlled electromagnetic sources for measuring electrical conductivity beneath the oceans. I. Forward problem and model study, Journal of Geophysical Research, 87, 5327-5338 https://doi.org/10.1029/JB087iB07p05327
  13. Guo, Y., Ko, H. w., and White, D. M., 1998, 3D localization of buried objects by nearfield electromagnetic holography, Geophysics, 63, 880-889 https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1444398
  14. Kaufman, A. A., and Keller, G. V., 1983, Frequency and transient soundings, Elsvier
  15. Oldenburg, D., Eso, R., Napier, S., and Haber, E., 2005, Controlled source electromagnetic inversion for resource exploration, First Break, 23, July, 67-73
  16. Lee, S., McMechan, G. A., and Aiken, C. L., 1987, Phase-field imaging: The electromagnetic equivalent of seismic migration, Geophysics, 52, 678-693 https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1442335
  17. Pellerin, L., Labson, V. F., and Pfeifer, M. C., 1995, VETEM Avery early time electromagnetic system, Proceeding of the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP), pp. 725-731
  18. Bhuyian, A. H., Wicklund, To, and Johansen, So, 2006, Highresistivity anomalies at Modgunn arch in the Norwegian Sea, First Break, 24, January, 39-44
  19. Chave, Ao D., Constable, S., and Edwards, N., 1991, Electrical exploration methods for seafloor, in Nabighian, M. No, ed., Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Vol II, 931-9660
  20. Levy, S., Oldenburg, D., and Wang, J., 1988, Subsurface imaging using magnetotelluric data, Geophysics, 53, 104-117 https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1442393
  21. Tompkins, M. 1., 2004, Marine controlled-source electromagnetic imaging for hydrocarbon exploration: interpreting subsurface electrical properties, First Break, 22, August, 45-51
  22. Hyndman, R. D., Spence, G D., Chapman, N. R., Riedel, M., and Edwards, R. N., 2001, Geophysical studies of marine gas hydrate in northern Cascadia, in Paull, C. K., and Dillon, W. D., eds., Natural Gas Hydrates, Occurrence, Distribution and Detection, Geophysical Monograph Series No. 124, American Geophysical Union (AGU), 273-295