The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Position and the Predicted Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease with Using Health Risk Appraisal

허혈성심질환 예측모형을 이용한 사회경제적 위치와 허혈성심질환 위험도의 연관성

  • Koh, Dong-Hee (Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency) ;
  • Han, Sun-Shil (Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University) ;
  • Jee, Sun-Ha (Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University) ;
  • Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul (Department of Preventive Medicine and Industrial Medical Center, The Catholic University of Korea)
  • 고동희 (한국산업안전공단 산업안전보건연구원) ;
  • 한순실 (연세대학교 보건대학원) ;
  • 지선하 (연세대학교 보건대학원) ;
  • 김형렬 (가톨릭대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실 및 산업의학센터)
  • Published : 2006.07.31

Abstract

Objectives: The object of this study is to assess the relationship between socioeconomic factors and the predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease by using health risk appraisal of ischemic heart disease. Methods: The study population was taken from The 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey, and it consisted of 1,566 men and 1,984 women aged 30-59. We calculated 10-year risk using the risk function of ischemic heart disease as developed by Jee. The educational level and equivalized household income were dichotomized by a 12 years education period and the median income level. Occupation was dichotomized into manual/non-manual work. We stratified the population by age(10 years) and sex, and then we rated the risk differences according to socioeconomic factors by performing t-tests for each strata. Results: There were gradients of the predicted 10-year risk of ischemic heart disease with the educational level and the equivalized household income, and thet was an increasing tendency of risk differences with age. Manual workers didn't show significant risk difference from non-manual workers. Conclusions: There was definite relationship between low socioeconomic position and the predicted risk of ischemic heart disease in the future.

References

  1. Kim YH, Kim JK, Lee SW, Lim ST, Cha GW, Cho YJ, Yu SH, Lee CW, Kim JG. The 10years follow up study on serum total cholesterol levels in normal Korean adult male workers living in Pohang. Korean J Med 2003; 65(6): 675-681 (Korean)
  2. Shin MJ, Lim HS, Chung NS, Cho SY, Kim SS. Effect of dietry therapy on blood lipid in outpatients with hypercholesterolemia. J Korean Diet Assoc 2001; 7(4): 313-319 (Korean)
  3. Tak YJ, Yoo SM, Cho BR, Song YM, Yoo TW, Hur BR. Factors related to serum total cholesterol. J Korean Acad Fam Med 1992; 13(12): 932-935 (Korean)
  4. Emberson JR, Whincup PH, Morris RW, Walker M. Social class differences in coronary heart disease in middle-aged British men: implications for prevention. Int J Epidemiol 2004; 33: 289-296 https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyh006
  5. Addor V, Wietlisbach V, Narring F, Michaud PA. Caridonvascular risk factor profiles and their social gradient from adolescence to age 74 in a Swiss region. Prev Med 2003; 36: 217-228 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-7435(02)00016-6
  6. Heslop P, Davey Smith G, Macleod J, Hart C. The socioeconomic position of employed women, risk factors and mortality. Soc Sci Med 2001; 53: 477-485 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00350-6
  7. Singh RB, Beegom R, Mehta AS, Niaz MA, De AK, Mitra RK, Haque M, Verma SP, Dube GK, Siddiqui HM, Wander GS, Janus ED, Postiglione A, Haque MS. Social class, coronary risk factors and undernutrition, a double burden of diseases, in women during transition, in five Indian cities. Int J Cardiol 1999; 69: 139-147 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5273(99)00010-8
  8. Khang YH, Lee SI, Lee MS, Jo MW. Socioeconomic mortality inequalities in Korea Labor and Income Panel Study. Korean J Health Pol Adimin 2004; 14(4): 1-20 (Korean)
  9. Khang YH, Lynch JW, Kaplan GA. Health inequalities in Korea: age- and sex-specific educational differences in the 10 leading causes of death. Int J Epidemiol 2004: 33; 299-308 https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyg244
  10. Lee JR, Paultre F, Mosca L. The association between educational level and risk of cardiovascular disease fatality among women with cardiovascular disease. Women's Health Issues 2004; 15: 80-88 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2004.11.004
  11. Gravelle H, Sutton M. Income related inequalities in self assessed health in Britain: 1979-1995. J Epidemiol Community Health 2003; 57: 125-129 https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.57.2.125
  12. Yoon TH. The relationship between social class distribution and mortality. Korean J Health Pol Adimin 2003; 13(4): 99-114 (Korean) https://doi.org/10.4332/KJHPA.2003.13.4.099
  13. Khang YH, Yun SC, Hwang IA, Lee MS, Lee SI, Jo MW, Lee MJ. Changes in mortality inequality in relation to the South Korea Economic Crisis: Use of area-based socioeconomic position. J Prev Med Public Health 2005; 38(3): 359-365 (Korean)
  14. Jeong BG, Jung KY, Kim JY, Moon OR, Lee YH, Hong YS, Yoon TH. The relationship between regional deprivation and the standardized mortality ratio of community residents aged 15-64 in Korea. J Prev Med Public Health 2006; 39(1): 46-52 (Korean)
  15. Son MA. The relationship of occupational class, education level and deprivation with mortality in Korea. Korean J Prev Med 2002; 35(1): 76-82 (Korean)
  16. Pickering T. Cardiovascular pathways: Socioeconomic status and stress effects on hypertension and cardiovascular function. Ann NY Acad Sci 1999; 896: 262-277 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08121.x
  17. Lynch JW, Kaplan GA, Cohen RD, Tumilehto J, Salonen JT. Do cardiovascular risk factors explain the relation between socioeconomic status, risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and acute myocardial infarction? Am J Epidemiol 1996; 144: 934-942 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008863
  18. Pekkanen J, Tumilehto J, Uutela A, Vartiainen E, Nissinen A. Social class, health behavior, and mortality among men and women in eastern Finland. Brit Med J 1995; 311: 589-593 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.311.7005.589
  19. Marmot MG, Bosma H, Hemingway H, Brunner E, Stansfeld S. Contribution of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence. Lancet 1997; 350: 235-239 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(97)04244-X
  20. Townsend P, Davidson N, Whitehead M. Inequalities in Health: the Black Report and the Health Divide. 2nd ed. London: Penguin Books, 1992
  21. Jee SH, Song JW, Cho HK, Kim SY, Jang YS, Kim JH Development of individualized health risk appraisal model of ischemic heart disease risk in Korea. Korean J Lipid 2004; 14(2): 153-168 (Korean)
  22. Expert Panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adult. Executive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program(NCEP) Expert Panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults(Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285(19): 2486-2509
  23. Kim CS, Yun SC, Kim HR, Khang YH. A multilevel study on the relationship between the residential distribution of high class(power elite) and smoking in Seoul. J Prev Med Pub Health 2006; 39(1): 30-38 (Korean)
  24. Ministry of Health & Welfare. 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey-overview. Ministry of Heath & Welfare, Korea. 2002 (Korean)
  25. Kim IH, Paek DM, Cho SI. Does non-standard work affect health? J Prev Med Pub Health 2005; 38(3): 337-344 (Korean)
  26. Lee SG, Jeon SY. The relations of socioeconomic status to health status, health behavior in the elderly. J Prev Med Public Health 2005; 38(2): 154-162 (Korean)
  27. Ruggles P. Drawing the line: Alternative Poverty Measures and their Implications for Public Policy. Urban Institute Press, 1990
  28. Baker DJP. Fetal Origins of Cardiovascular and Lung Disease. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.,2001
  29. Khang YH. Lifecourse approaches to socioeconomic health inequalities. J Prev Med Public Health 2005; 38(3): 267-275 (Korean)
  30. Khang YH, Kim HR Explaining socioeconomic inequality in mortality among South Koreans: an examination of multiple pathways in a nationally representative longitudinal study. Int J Epidemiol 2005; 34: 630-637 https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi043
  31. Son MA. The relationship of social class and health behaviors with mortality in Korea. Korea J Prev Med 2002; 35(1): 57-64 (Korean)