Acute Effects of Tobacco and Non-tobacco Cigarette Smoking on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate

  • Kho Young-Lim (Department of Environmental Health, Seoul Health College) ;
  • Yi Sang-Gu (Korea Health Industry Development Institute) ;
  • Lee Eun-Hee (School of Public Health, Seoul National University) ;
  • Chung Moon-Ho (School of Public Health, Seoul National University)
  • Published : 2006.06.01


Smoking of tobacco cigarettes is associated with a rise in blood pressure together with increase in heart rate. This study was aimed to examine the acute effect of tobacco and non-tobacco cigarette smoking on the blood pressure and heart rate by randomized crossover study. In the results, systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart rate changes after smoking were significantly different between male and female group. Blood pressure and heart rate were elevated after smoking, but statistical significance for the difference was identified only in the female group. Because Non-tobacco smoke made from leaves of E. ulmoides has no nicotine, its effect on blood pressure and heart rate was negligible. Remarkable difference of heart rate changes in women was observed between tobacco cigarette smoking group and non-tobacco cigarette smoking group.


  1. Bates, C.J., Walmsley, C.M., Prentice, A. and Finch, S. : Does vitamin C reduce blood pressure: Results of a large study of people aged 65 or older. J. Hypertension, 16, 925-932, 1998
  2. Kho, Y.L., Yang, W.H. and Chung, M.H. : Environmental tobacco smoke exposure of workers at restaurants in Seoul Metropolitan City. Kor. J. Env. Hlth., 28(2), 173-182, 2002
  3. Kim, J.G. and Shin, H.S. : A study on the evaluation of the stop-smoking program for active smoking and passive smoking students, Kor. J. Env. Hlth., 28(3), 26-33, 2002
  4. Slade, J., Bero, L.A., Hanauer, P., Barnes, D.E. and Glantz, S.A. : Nicotine and addiction: The brown and Williamson documents. JAMA, 274(3), 225-33, 1995
  5. Lee, J.Y., Lee, M.H. and Choi, W.C. : Aspect of minerals in the hair of smokers. Kor. J. Env. Hlth., 31(2), 107-114, 2005
  6. Davis, J.W., Shelton, L., Eigenberg, D.A., Hignite, C.E. and Watanabe, I.S. : Effects of tobacco and non-tobacco cigarette smoking on endothelium and platelets. Clinical and Pharmacological Therapy, 37(5), 529-533, 1985
  7. Bloom, J.W., Kaltenborn, W.T., Paoletti, P., Camilli, A. and Lebowitz, M.D. : Respiratory effects of nontobacco cigarettes. BMJ(clinical research ed.), 295(6612), 1516-1518, 1987
  8. Sherrill, D.L., Drzyzanowski, M, Bloom, J.W. and Lebowitz, M.D. : Respiratory effects of nontobacco cigarettes: A longitudinal study in general population. International Journal of Epidemiology, 20(1), 132-137, 1991
  9. Frati, A.C., Iniestra, F. and Ariza, C.R. : Acute effect of cigarette smoking on glucose tolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors. Diabetes Care, 19(2), 112-118, 1996
  10. Kannel, W.B., D'agositino, R.B. and Belanger, A.J. : Fibrinogen, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease: insights from the Framingham Study. Am. Heart J., 113(4), 1106-10, 1987
  11. Kochar, M.S. and Bindra, R.S. : The additive effects of smoking and hypertension. Smoking and Hypertiension, 100(5), 147-160, 1996
  12. Skurnik, Y. and Shoenfeld, Y. : Health effects of cigarette smoking. Clinics in Dermatology, 16, 545-556, 1998
  13. Dews, I.M., Vandenburg, M.J. and Pullan, T.R. : A randomized crossover study of the blood pressure effects of tobacco and non-tobacco cigarettes. J. Hypertension, 9(suppl. 6), S120-S121, 1991
  14. Tam, C.F., Nguyen, L., Pea, S.S., Hajyan, K., Kevork, S., Davis, R., Poon, G. and Lew, P. : The effects of age, gender, obesity, health habits, and vegetable consumption frequency on hypertension in elderly Chinese Americans. Nutrition Research, 25, 31-43, 2005
  15. Ko, M., Kim, M.T. and Nam, J.J. : Assessing risk factors of coronary heart disease and its risk prediction among Korean adults. Int. J. Cardiology, 110, 184-190, 2006
  16. Daviglus, M.L., Stamler, J., Pirzada, A., Yan, L.L., Garside, D.B., Liu, K., Wang, R., Dyer, A.R., Lloyd-Jones, D.M. and Greenland, P. : Favorable cardiovascular risk profile in young women and long-term risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. JAMA, 292, 1588-92, 2004
  17. Trijp, M.J, Grobbee, D.E., Peeters, P.H., Schouw, Y.T. and Bots, M.L. : Average blood pressure and cardiobascular disease-related mortality in middleaged women. Am. J. Hypertension, 18, 197-201, 2005
  18. Rose, J.E., Behm, F.M. and Westman, E.C. : Acute effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on tobacco withdrawal symptoms, cigarette reward and ad lib smoking. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 68, 187-197, 2001
  19. Yamaguchi, J., Hozawa, A., Ohkubo, T., Kikuya, M., Ugajin, T., Ohmori, K., Hashimoto, J., Hoshi, H., Satoh, H., Tsuji, I. and Imai, Y. : Factors affecting home-measured resting heart rate in the general population. Am. J. Hypertension, 18, 1218-1225, 2005
  20. Ryan, S.M., Goldberger, A.L., Pincus, S.M., Mietus, J. and Lipsitz, L.A. : Gender- and agerelated differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 24(7), 1700-1707, 1994