Effects of High Pressure on pH, Water-binding Capacity and Textural Properties of Pork Muscle Gels Containing Various Levels of Sodium Alginate

  • Chen, Cong-Gui (School of Biology & Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology) ;
  • Borjigin, Gerelt (College of Food Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agriculture University) ;
  • Jiang, Shao-Tong (School of Biology & Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology) ;
  • Tadayuki, Nishiumi (Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University) ;
  • Atsushi, Suzuki (Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University)
  • Received : 2005.10.13
  • Accepted : 2006.03.14
  • Published : 2006.11.01


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium alginate (SA) and pressurization levels on pH, water-binding and textural properties of pork muscle gels (PMG) containing salt. Ground lean pork with 1.0% NaCl and a given amount of SA (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0%, respectively), was pressurized to 100, 200 or 300 MPa and subsequently gelled by heating. Results showed that addition of SA into pork muscle enhanced water-holding capacity (WHC) of PMG (p<0.05) as SA increased from 0.25% to 1.0%, with pH slightly increased (p>0.05). A decrease (p<0.05) was observed in all textural parameters (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness). Pressurization had no effect on the tendency of WHC to increase or the decrease of the textural parameters. However, the effectiveness of pressurization to enhance textural properties of PMG was significant at some SA levels, especially ${\geq}200MPa$ and at ${\leq}0.75%$ SA levels. Different combinations of pressure and SA levels could bring about variation in textural properties of PMG while SA enhanced WHC of pork muscle. The multiformity of the texture will open up a wide range of technological possibilities for the manufacture of pork-based restructured low-fat products.


Supported by : Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)


  1. Kimura, Y., K. Watanabe and H. Okuda. 1996. Effects of soluble sodium alginate on cholesterol excretion and glucose tolerance in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 54:47-54
  2. Park, B. Y., J. H. Kim, S. H. Cho, I. H. Hwang, O. S. Jung and Y. K. Kim. 2005. Effects of a dietary chitosan-alginate-Fe (II) complex on meat quality of pig longissimus muscle during ageing. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18(3):414-419
  3. Perez-Mateos, M., T. Solas and P. Montero. 2002. Carrageenans and alginate effects on properties of combined pressure and temperature in fish mince gels. Food Hydrocol. 16:225-233
  4. Luruena-Martinez, M. A., A. M. Vivar-Quintana and I. Revilla 2004. Effect of locust bean/xanthan gum addition and replacement of pork fat with olive oil on the quality characteristics of low-fat frankfurters. Meat Sci. 68:383-389
  5. Bernal, V. M., C. H. Smajda, L. L. Smith and D. W. Stanley. 1987. Interactions in protein/polysaccharide/calcium gels. J. Food Sci. 52:1121-1125, 1136
  6. Martin, F. F., S. Cofrads, J. Carballo and F. J. Colmenero. 2002. Salt and phosphate effects on the gelling process of pressure/heat treated pork batters. Meat Sci. 61:15-23
  7. Jarmoluk, A. and Z. Pietrasik. 2003. Response surface methodology study on the effects of blood plasma, microbial transglutaminase and $\kappa$-carrageenan on pork batter gel properties. J. Food Engin. 60:327-334
  8. Perez-Mateos, M. and P. Montero. 2000. Contribution of hydrocolloids to gelling properties of blue whiting muscle. Epn. Food Res. Technol. 210:383-390
  9. Cavestanya, M., J. F. Colmeneroa, M. T. Solasb and J. Carballoa. 1994. Incorporation of sardine surimi in Bologna sausage containing different fat levels. Meat Sci. 38:27-37
  10. Toldra, F., M. A. Rubio, J. L. Navarro and L. Cabrerizo. 2004. Quality aspects of pork meat and its nutritional impact. In (F. Shahidi, A. M. Spanier, Chi-Tang Ho and T. Braggins), Advances in experimental medicine and biology (Vol. 542). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. pp. 25-31
  11. Chin, K. B., J. T. Keeton, M. T. Longnecker and J. W. Lamkey. 1999. Utilization of soy protein isolate and konjac blends in a low-fat bologna (model system). Meat Sci. 53:45-57
  12. Macfarlane, J. J., I. J. Mckenzie, R. H. Turner and P. N. Jones. 1984. Binding of comminuted meat: effect of high pressure. Meat Sci. 10:307-320
  13. Xiong, Y. L. and S. P. Blanchard. 1993. Viscoelastic properties of myofibrillar protein polysaccharide composite gels. J. Food Sci. 58:164-167
  14. Bourne, M. C. 1978. Texture profile analysis. Food Technol. 32:62-66
  15. Imeson, A. P., D. A. Ledward and J. R. Mitchell. 1977. On the nature of the interaction between some anionic polysaccharides and proteins. J. Sci. Food Agric. 28:661-668
  16. Stabursvik, E., K. Fretheim and T. Frystein. 1984. Myosin denaturation in pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) porcine muscle tissue as studied by differential scanning calorimetry. J. Sci. Food Agric. 35:240-244
  17. Lawrie, R. A. 1991. Meat Sci. 5th Ed. Pergamon Press. p. 191
  18. Okabe, T. 1979. Texture measurement by rheometer. Shokuhin kogyo, 22, 1-9 (in Japanese)
  19. Chin, K. B., J. T. Keeton, M. T. Longnecker and J. W. Lamkey. 1998. Functional, textural and microstructural properties of low-fat bologna (model system) with a konjac blend. J. Food Sci. 63:801-807
  20. Angsupanich, K. and D. A. Ledward. 1998. High pressure treatment effects on cod (Gadus morhua) muscle. Food Chem. 63(1):39-50
  21. AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. Meat and Meat Products, Chapter Editor, US. Department of Agriculture
  22. Colmenero, F. J., S. Cofrades, J. Carballo, P. Fernandez and F. F. Martin. 1998. Heating of chicken and pork meat batters under pressure conditions: protein interactions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:4706-4711
  23. Han-Jun Ma and D. A. Ledward. 2004. High pressure/thermal treatment effects on the texture of beef muscle. Meat Sci. 68:347-355
  24. Suzuki, A., M. Watanabe, K. Iwamura, Y. Ikeuchi and M. Saito. 1990. Effect of high pressure treatment on the ultrastructure and myofibrillar protein of beef skeletal muscle. Agric. Biol. Chem. 54:3085-3091
  25. Ensor, S. A., E. A. Ernst, J. N. Sofos and G. R. Schmidt. 1989. Quality characteristics of restructured turkey meat with variable alginate/calcium-lactate ratios. J. Food Sci. 54:558-560
  26. Ensor, S. A., J. N. Sofos and G. R. Schmidt. 1991. Differential scanning calorimetric studies of meat protein-alginate mixtures. J. Food Sci. 56:175-179
  27. Pietrasik, Z. 2003. Binding and textural properties of beef gels processed with $\kappa$-carrageenan, egg albumin and microbial transglutaminase. Meat Sci. 63:317-324
  28. Fernandez, P., S. Cofrades, M. T. Solas, J. Carballo and F. J. Colmenero. 1998. High pressure-cooking of chicken meat batters with starch, egg white, and lota carrageenan. J. Food Sci. 63:267-271
  29. Motzer, E. A., J. A. Carpenter, A. E. Reynolds and C. E. Lyon. 1998. Quality of restructured hams manufactured with PSE pork as affected by water binders. J. Food Sci. 63:1007-1011

Cited by

  1. High-Pressure Pretreatment to Improve the Water Retention of Sodium-Reduced Frozen Chicken Breast Gels with Two Organic Anion Types of Potassium Salts pp.1935-5149, 2017,