DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Comparison of Rabbit Caecal Content and Rabbit Hard Faeces as Source of Inoculum for the In vitro Gas Production Technique

  • Bovera, Fulvia (University of Napoli Federico II, Department of Scienze Zootecniche e Ispezione degli alimenti via F. Delpino) ;
  • D'Urso, Simona (University of Napoli Federico II, Department of Scienze Zootecniche e Ispezione degli alimenti via F. Delpino) ;
  • Di Meo, Carmelo (University of Napoli Federico II, Department of Scienze Zootecniche e Ispezione degli alimenti via F. Delpino) ;
  • Piccolo, Giovanni (University of Napoli Federico II, Department of Scienze Zootecniche e Ispezione degli alimenti via F. Delpino) ;
  • Calabro, Serena (University of Napoli Federico II, Department of Scienze Zootecniche e Ispezione degli alimenti via F. Delpino) ;
  • Nizza, Antonino (University of Napoli Federico II, Department of Scienze Zootecniche e Ispezione degli alimenti via F. Delpino)
  • Received : 2006.02.06
  • Accepted : 2006.05.30
  • Published : 2006.11.01

Abstract

In order to find an alternative source of inoculum to caecal content for studying the fermentation activity of rabbit hindgut, caecal content and faeces of 25 hybrid Hyla rabbits were used as inocula for an in vitro gas production trial. About 1 g of three substrates (dehydrated alfalfa meal, dehydrated beet pulp, barley) was weighed, in quadruplicate per inoculum, in 120 ml bottles; 75 ml of anaerobic medium and 4 ml of reducing solution were added and bottles were placed at $39^{\circ}C$. Caecal content and faeces were diluted respectively 1:2 (CI) and 1:8 (FI) with anaerobic medium and were introduced in the respective bottles (10 ml). Gas production was recorded 20 times at 2-24 h intervals throughout fermentation (96 h). The fermentation characteristics (i.e. degraded organic matter, OMd; potential gas production, A; fermentation rate, Rmax; time at which it is reached, Tmax; pH, volatile fatty acid, VFA) were studied by inoculum and feedstuffs. The feedstuffs, according to their chemical composition, showed very different fermentation characteristics. In particular, OMd, A and Rmax allowed feedstuff classification as follows: barley>beet pulp>alfalfa. The inocula differ (p<0.05) in Tmax, were higher for CI (15.53 vs. 11.96 h) and in VFA production. In particular, CI produced higher levels of acetate (38.9 vs. 33.4 mM/g OM incubated, p<0.01) and isobutyrate (0.72 vs. 0.42, p<0.01) but less propionate (7.1 vs. 10.3, p<0.01) and butyrate (11.3 vs. 14.0, p<0.01). However, the trend of gas production, similar for the inocula according to the fermented substrate, and the good regression equation to estimate some caecal fermentation parameters from faeces suggest that, after standardisation, the faeces could be used as an alternative inoculum for gas tests in rabbit.

Keywords

In vitro Gas Production Technique;Faeces;Caecal Content;Rabbit

References

  1. Akhter, S., E. Owen, M. K. Theodorou, S. L. Tembo, E. R. Deaville. 1995. Repeatability of in vitro digestibility assays of forages when using fresh, frozen or freeze-dried cow faeces instead of sheep rumen liquor as sources of micro-organisms. Proc. of British Society of Animal Production, Winter Meeting Paper, Wageningen, The Netherland, p. 110
  2. Altaf, U. R., R. Mauricio, F. L. Mould, T. Smith, E. Owen, R. H. Phipps and M. K. Theodorou. 1998. Comparison of bovine rumen liquor and bovine faeces as sources of micro-organisms for the in-vitro gas production technique for assessing silages of maize and maize plant fractions. Proc. Br. Soc. Anim. Sci. p. 60
  3. Bauer, E., B. A. Williams, C. Voigt, R. Mosenthin and W. A. Versteng Martin. 2001. Microbial activities of faeces from unweaned pigs, in relation to selected fermentable carbohydrates. Anim. Sci. 73:313-322 https://doi.org/10.1017/S135772980005829X
  4. Calabro, S., F. Infascelli, F. Bovera, G. Moniello and V. Piccolo. 2002. In vitro degradability of three forages: fermentation kinetics and gas production of NDF and neutral detergent soluble fraction of forages. J. Sci. Food Agric. 82:222-229 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1021
  5. Corbett, J. L. 1981. Measurement of the forage intake of grazing animals. In: (J. L. Wheeler and R. D. Mochrie), Forage Evaluation: concepts and techniques. Commonwealth Scientific and Indusrrial Research Organisation and America Forage and Grassland Council, East Melbourne, pp. 287-297
  6. Cutrignelli, M. I., S. Calabro, R. Tudisco, F. Zicarelli, M. P. Gazaneo and V. Piccolo. 2005. Comparison of buffalo rumen liquor and buffalo faeces as inoculum for the in vitro gas production technique. Proc. of ASPA XVI Congress, Turin, Italy, pp. 319-321
  7. Davies, Z. S., D. Mason, A. E. Brooks, G. W. Griffith, R. J. Merry and M. K. Theodorou. 2000. An automated system for measuring gas production from forages inoculated with rumen fluid and its use. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 83:205-211 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00138-8
  8. El Shaer, H. M., H. M. Omed, A. G. Chamberlain and R. F. E. Axford. 1987. Use of faecal organisms from sheep for the in vitro determination of digestibility. J. Agric. Sci. 109:257-259 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600080667
  9. Kern, D. L., L. L. Slyter, E. C. Leffer, J. M. Weaver and R. R. Oltjen. 1974. Ponies vs. steers: biological and chemical characteristics of intestinal ingesta. J. Anim. Sci. 38:559-564 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1974.383559x
  10. Nizza, A., C. Di Meo, M. P. Gazaneo, C. Racca, F. Bovera and G. Piccolo. 2004. Effect of Birth Weight and Litter Size on Productive Performance of Rabbits. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1158-1162 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.1158
  11. Omed, H. M., D. K. Lovett and R. F. E. Axford. 2000. Faeces as a source of microbial enzymes for estimating digestibility. In: Forage evaluation in Ruminant Nutrition, CABI Publishing, NY
  12. Orskov, E. R. 1982. Protein Nutrition in Ruminants. Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd
  13. Piattoni, F., L. Mbanzamihigo, D. Demeyer, L. Nollet and L. Maertens. 1998. Effect of bromoethansulfonic acid and monensin on in vitro fermentation pattern of non-fasted rabbits. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 73:353-364 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(98)00144-8
  14. Roszak, D. B. and R. R. Colwell. 1987. Metabolic activity of bacterial cells enumerated by direct viable counts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:2889-2893
  15. Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. British Grassland Soc. 18:104-111 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1963.tb00335.x
  16. Sharpe, M. E., M. J. Latham and B. Reiter. 1975. The immune response of the host animal to bacteria in the rumen and caecum. In (Ed. I. W. McDonald, A. C. I. Warner) Digestion and Metabolism in the Ruminant. The University of New England Publishing Unit, Sydney, pp. 193-204
  17. Blummel, M. and E. R. Oskov. 1993. Comparison of in vitro gas production and nylon bag degradability of roughage in predicting feed intake in cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 40:109-119 https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(93)90150-I
  18. Theodorou, M. K. 1993. A new laboratory procedure for determining the fermentation kinetics of ruminants feeds. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria, 20:332-344
  19. AOAC. 2000. Official methods of Analysis 17th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia
  20. Gidenne, T. 1995. Effect of fibre level reduction and glucooligosaccharides addition on the growth performance and caecal fermentation in the growing rabbit. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 56:253-263 https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00834-9
  21. Williams, B. A., M. Bosch, J. Houdyk and Y. van der Camp. 1997. Differences in potential fermentative capabilities of four section of porcine digestive tract. In Proc. of the 48th EAAP meeting. Vienna, Austria, Wageningen Pers., Wageningen, The Netherlands, p. 195
  22. Mauricio, R. M., E. Owen, F. L. Mould, I. Givens, M. K. Theodorou, J. France, D. R. Davies and M. S. Dhanoa. 2001. Comparison of bovine rumen liquor and bovine faeces as inoculum for an in vitro gas production technique for evaluating forages. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 89:33-48 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00234-0
  23. Pell, A. N. and P. Schofield. 1993. Computerised monitoring of gas production to measure forage digestion in vitro. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1063-1073 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77435-4
  24. O'Donovan, F. 1995. A comparison of faeces sources and buffers in the application of the faecal liquor technique. MSc Thesis, University of Wales, Bangor, UK
  25. Piccolo, G., F. Bovera, C. Di Meo, M. P. Gazaneo and A. Nizza. 2005. Performance of Suckling Rabbits Fed a Low Fibre Concentrate. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1421-1424 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.1421
  26. Cone, J. W., A. H. Gelder, G. J. W. Visscher and L. Oudshoorn. 1996. Influence of rumen fluid and substrate concentration on fermentation kinetics measured with a fully automated time related gas production apparatus. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 61:113-128 https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(96)00950-9
  27. Hobson, P. N. 1971. Rumen micro-organism. Proc. Ind. Microbiol. 9: 42-77
  28. Theodorou, M. K., B. A. Williams, M. S. Dhanoa, A. B. McAllan and J. France. 19994. A simple gas production method using pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 48:185-197 https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)90171-6
  29. Gazaneo, M. P., F. Bovera, C. Di Meo, G. Piccolo and A. Nizza. 2003. Effect of inoculum from suckling rabbits of different ages on fermentation parameters obtained with the in vitro gas production technique. Proc. of Wild and domestic herbivore characterization, 17-18 October, Yucatan, Mexico, pp. 57-59
  30. Getachew, G., M. Blummel, H. P. S. Makkar and K. Becker. 1998. In vitro gas measuring techniques for assessment of nutritional quality of feeds: a review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 72:261-281 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00189-2
  31. Houdijk, J. G. M. 1998. Effect of non-digestible oligosaccharides in young pig diets, Ph.D Thesis, Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
  32. Calabro, S., A. Nizza, W. Pinna, M. I. Cutrignelli and V. Piccolo. 1999. Estimation of digestibility of compound diets for rabbits using the in vitro gas production technique. World Rabbit Sci. 7:197-201
  33. Garcia, J., T. Gidenne, L. Falcao-e-cunha and C. de Blas. 2002. Identification of the main factors that influence caecal fermentation traits in growing rabbits. Anim. Res. 51:165-173 https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2002011
  34. Groot, J. C. J., J. W. Cone, B. A. Williams, F. M. A. Debrasques and E. A. Lantinga. 1996. Multiphasic analysis of gas production kinetics for in vitro fermentation of ruminants feed. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 64:77-89 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(96)01012-7
  35. SAS. 2000. SAS/STAT$\Re$ Software: Changes and Enhancements through Release 8.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC
  36. Allison, M. J. 1984. Microbiology of the rumen and small and large intestines. In: (Ed. M. J. Swenson). Duke's Physiology of Domestic Animals. 10th Edition. Cornstock Publishing Associates. Cornell University Press
  37. Menke, K. H. and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28:7-12
  38. Blummel, M. and K. Becker. 1997. The degradability characteristics of fifty-four roughages and roughage neutraldetergent fibres as described by in vitro gas production and their relationship to voluntary feed intake. Br. J. Nutr. 77:757-768 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19970073
  39. Stanco, G., C. Di Meo, S. Calabro and A. Nizza. 2003. Prediction of nutritive value of diets for rabbits using an in vitro gas production technique. World Rabbit Sci. 11:199-210

Cited by

  1. ) vol.48, pp.3, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660701341989
  2. Prediction of rabbit caecal fermentation characteristics from faeces by in vitro gas production technique: roughages vol.92, pp.3, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2007.00748.x
  3. A model to assess the use of caecal and faecal inocula to study fermentability of nutrients in rabbit vol.93, pp.2, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2007.00795.x
  4. In vitro caecal fermentation of carbohydrate-rich feedstuffs in rabbits as affected by substrate pre-digestion and donors' diet vol.26, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2018.7854