Supplementation of Essential Oil Extracted from Citrus Peel to Animal Feeds Decreases Microbial Activity and Aflatoxin Contamination without Disrupting In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

  • Nam, I.S. (Department of Dairy Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hankyong National University) ;
  • Garnsworthy, P.C. (Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus) ;
  • Ahn, Jong Ho (Department of Dairy Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hankyong National University)
  • Received : 2006.01.17
  • Accepted : 2006.08.19
  • Published : 2006.11.01


Long-term storage of feeds or feedstuffs in high temperature and humid conditions can be difficult because of microbial contamination. Essential oil isolated from industrial waste citrus peel could be used as a preservative because it is likely to have anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity. Our objective was to determine whether different levels (0.028, 0.056 and 0.112 g/kg) of citrus essential oil (CEO) would provide anti-microbial activity and enhance preservation of animal feed without influencing rumen fermentation. At 0.112 g/kg, CEO inhibited growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Salmonela enteritidis (IFO 3313). Growth of E. coli recovered after 24 h of incubation, but S. enteritidis continued to be inhibited for 72 h. Preservation of antibiotic-free diets for swine was assessed by observing anti-aflatoxin activity. Aflatoxin was detected in control feed samples on days 16 (8 ppb) and 21 (8 ppb) and in anti-fungal agent (AA) treated samples on days 16 (2 ppb) and 21 (4 ppb). However, aflatoxin was not detected in feed samples treated with CEO. Treatment with CEO and AA did not influence ruminal pH, dry matter digestibility (DMD) or organic matter digestibility (OMD) over 48 h of incubation in rumen fluid. Acetate and propionate were slightly higher with CEO treatment (p<0.05), but total concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA) was not significantly affected by treatment. Ammonia-N concentration was slightly higher for the control treatment (p<0.05). This study showed that treating feed with CEO enhances preservation of animal feed without influencing in vitro rumen fermentation.


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