One Point In situ Incubation Estimation of Undegraded Protein in Forages

  • Gupta, Neeraj (National Dairy Research Institute) ;
  • Tyagi, A.K. (National Dairy Research Institute) ;
  • Singhal, K.K. (National Dairy Research Institute)
  • Received : 2005.02.01
  • Accepted : 2004.04.04
  • Published : 2006.11.01


To estimate undegraded intake protein (UIP) fraction in feeds and fodders, on the basis of their neutral detergent insoluble N content was studied. Samples of six feeds and forages were incubated in situ for a time equivalent to their mean retention time, estimated on the basis of their digestibility plus 10 h (to account for a lag in passage of particles from the rumen). The samples were incubated for 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the estimated total mean retention time. UIP value of leguminous forages, obtained from the fractional rates of degradation and passage, were highly correlated with those estimated from samples incubated for 75% of total mean retention time, while incubating the non-leguminous forages and groundnut cake for this point over estimate the UIP fraction.


  1. Goering, H. K. and P. J. van Soast. 1970. Forage Fiber Analysis. Agricultural Handbook No 379, USDA, Washington, DC
  2. Kurar, C. K., B. N. Gupta and M. V. N. Rao. 1984. Effect of partial replacement of protein by subabul (Leuceana leucocephala) leaves in the ration of growing crossbred calves. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 54:422-424
  3. Mc Doughall, E. I. 1948. Studies on ruminant saliva 1. The composition and output of saliva. Biochem. J. 43:99
  4. Mehrez, A. Z. and E. R. Orskov. 1977. A study of the artificial fibre bag technique for determining the digestibility of feeds in the rumen. J. Agric. Sci. 88:645-650
  5. Samanta, A. K., R. C. Chopra, P. P. Atreja and A. Chhabra. 1994. An attempt to inactivate minimize of Leucenea leueocephala by mineral supplementation for feeding ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 50:157-165
  6. Terill, T. H. 1989. Influence of forage preservation method on tannin concentration. Detergent fiber analysis and digestibility of Sericea lespedea. Dissertation- Abstracts international, -B, - Sciences- and Engineering 50:6, 2217B
  7. van Soest, P. J. 1968. Chemical estimates of the nutritional value of feeds. In: Proceedings of Cornell Nutrition Conference, Ithaca, New York Cornell University Press, pp. 38-48
  8. Orskov, E. R. and I. Mc Donald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rates of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92:499-503
  9. Akabar, M. A. and P. C. Gupta. 1985. Subabul (Leuceana leucocephala) as a source of protein supplement for buffalo calves. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 55:54-59
  10. NRC 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, National Academy of Science, National Research Council, Washington, DC. 258-280
  11. Broderick, G. A. 1994. Quantifying forage protein quality. In: (Ed. G. C. Fahey, Jr.) forage Quality, Evaluation and utilization. PP 200-228. American society of Agronomy, Inc.,Crop science Society Of America, Inc., and Soil Science society of America, Inc., Madison,Wl
  12. Sen, K. C., S. N. Ray and S. K. Ranjhan. 1978. Nutritive value of Indian cattle Feeds and the Feeding of Animals. 6th Edn., ICAR, New Delhi. pp. 27-92
  13. Klopfenstein, T. J., R. A. Mass, K. W. Creighton and H. H. Patterson. 2001. Estimating forage protein degradation in the rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 79 (E. supplement):208-217
  14. Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grassland. Soc. 18:104-111
  15. Ellis, W. C., J. H. Matis, T. M. Hill and M. R. Murphy. 1994. Methodology for estimating digestion and passage kinetics of forages: (Ed. G. C. Fahey, M. Collins, D. R. Mertensm and L. E. Moser) Forage quality, Evaluation, and Utilization. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. pp. 682-756
  16. Lamothe, M. and T. J. Klopfenstein. 2003. Estimation of rumen undegradable protein in forages by using neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen at a single in situ incubation time point. Nebraska Beef Report, pp. 81-83
  17. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, USDA., Washington, DC. pp. 72-76
  18. Pradhan, K., S. K. Bhatia and D. C. Sangwan. 1991. Relative rumen ecosystem digestibility in cattle and buffalo fed high fibrous diets. Tech. Bull. Dept. Anim. Nutri, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, India
  19. Tamminga, S. 1979. Protein degradation in the stomachs of ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 49:1615-1630
  20. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1968. Statistical methods, 6th Edn, The Iowa State Coll. Press, ames, Iowa
  21. Sniffen, C. J., J. D. O'Connor, P. J. Van Soest, D. G. Fox and J. B. Russell. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. II Carbohydrate and protein availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3562-3577
  22. Chalupa, W. 1976. Degradation of amino acids by mixed rumen microbial population. J. Anim. Sci. 43:829-834