DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Cold Stress on Broiler Performance and Ascites Susceptibility

  • Ipek, A. (Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Animal Science Department) ;
  • Sahan, U. (Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Animal Science Department)
  • Received : 2005.10.13
  • Accepted : 2006.01.19
  • Published : 2006.05.01

Abstract

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of cold stress on broiler performance and ascites susceptibility. Male chicks were obtained from a commercial strain of broiler breeders. The trial was divided into two treatments (control and cold stress groups). Ascites was induced in broiler chickens in the trial by exposing the chickens to low temperature (Ta) and by supplying a pelleted diet. The two experimental treatments consisted of: 1) Control group, $33.3^{\circ}C$ the $1^{st}$ wk, $30.2^{\circ}C$ the $2^{nd}$ wk, and $27.5^{\circ}C$ the $3^{rd}$ wk. 2) Cold stress group, $29.0^{\circ}C$ the $1^{st}$ wk, $26.4^{\circ}C$ the $2^{nd}$ wk, and $23.1^{\circ}C$ the $3^{rd}$ wk. From the end of the $3^{rd}$ wk all broilers were reared to 6 wk of age at a constant temperature of $21^{\circ}C$. There was significant difference in live BW during wk 1 to 5. The control group was consistently the heaviest; however, at 6 wk of age, both groups weighed the same. Body weight gain up to 3 wk was significantly decreased by cold stress. During wk 3 and 6 the chicks in the cold stress group had greater BW gain compared with the chicks in the control group. There were significant differences in mortality due to ascites between the groups. During wk 3 and 6 the cold stress group exhibited the most ascites mortality (9.52%) when compared with the control group (1.90%). At 5 wk of age cold stress condition caused significant changes in packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell counts (RBC). Right ventricle weight was significantly heavier in the cold stress group than the control. There were also significant differences in right ventricle/total ventricle (RV/TV) ratios at 5 wk. the right ventricle/total ventricle ratios in the cold stress group was higher (0.25) than the control group (0.20). It was concluded that, fast growth and cold temperatures are the primary triggers for ascites during commercial broiler production.

Keywords

Broiler;Ascites;Performance Parameters;Cold Stress;Physiological Traits

References

  1. Decuypere, E., J. Buyse and N. Buys. 2000. Ascites in broiler chickens: exogenous and endogenous structural and functional causal factors. World's Poult. Sci. 56(4):367-377 https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS20000025
  2. Julian, R. J. 1988. Pulmonary hypertension as a cause of right ventricular failure and ascites in broilers. Zootecnica Intern. November, 58-62
  3. Julian, R. J. 2000. Physiological, management and environmental triggers of the ascites syndrome: a review. Avian Pathol. 6:519-527
  4. Malan, D. D., C. W. Scheele, J. Buyse, C. Kwakernaak, F. K. Siebrits, J. D. Van Der Klis and E. Decuypere. 2003. Metabolic rate and its relationship with ascites in chicken genotypes. Br. Poult. Sci. 44:309-315 https://doi.org/10.1080/000716603100024603
  5. Maxwell, M. H., G. H. Robertson and S. Spence. 1986. Studies on an ascitic syndrome in young broilers. 1: hematology and pathology. Avian Pathol. 15:511-524 https://doi.org/10.1080/03079458608436312
  6. Maxwell, M. H., G. W. Robertson and C. C. Mccorquodale. 1992. Whole blood and plasma viscosity values in normal and ascitic broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 33:871-877 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669208417528
  7. Maxwell, M. H. and G. W. Robertson. 1997. World broiler ascites survey 1996. Poult. Int. 36:16-19
  8. Peacock, A. J., C. Pickett, K. Morris and J. T. Reeves. 1990. Spontaneous hypoxaemia and right ventricular hypertrophy in fast growing broiler chickens reared at sea level. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 97a:537-541
  9. Shlosberg, A., M. Bellaiche, V. Hanji, A. Nyska, M. Lubln, M. Shemesh, L. Shore, S. Perk and E. Berman. 1996. The effect of acetylsalicylic acid and cold stress on the susceptibility of broilers to the ascites syndrome. Avian Pathol. 25:581-590 https://doi.org/10.1080/03079459608419163
  10. Wideman, R. F., Jr., T. Wing, Y. K. Kirby, M. F. Forman, N. Marson, C. D. Tackett and C. A. Ruiz-Feria. 1998. Evaluation of minimally invasive indices for predicting ascites susceptibility in three successive hatches of broilers exposed to cool temperatures. Poult. Sci. 77:1565-1573 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/77.10.1565
  11. Wideman, R. F., Jr., M. R. Fedde, C. D. Tackett and G. E. Weigle. 2000. Cardio-pulmonary function in preascitic (hypoxemic) or normal broilers inhaling ambient air or 100% oxygen. Poult. Sci. 79:415-425 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.3.415
  12. Wideman, R. F. 2001. Pathophysiology of heart/lung disorders: pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broiler chickens. World's Poult. Sci. 57(3):289-307 https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS20010021
  13. Lubritz, D. L., J. L. Smith and B. N. Mcpherson. 1995. Heritability of ascites and the rato of right to total ventricle weight in broiler breeder male lines. Poult. Sci. 74:1237-1241 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0741237
  14. Odom, T. W., L. M. Rosenbaum and J. S. Jeffery. 1995. Experimental reduction of eggshell conductance during incubation i. effect on the susceptibility to ascites syndrome. Avian Disease. 39:821-829 https://doi.org/10.2307/1592419
  15. Huchzermeyer, F. W., A. M. C. De Ruyck and H. Van Ark. 1988. Broiler pulmonary hypertension syndrome. iii. commercial broiler strains differ in their susceptibility. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 55:5-9
  16. Robinson, F. E., H. L. Classen, J. A. Hanson and D. K. Onderka. 1992. Growth performance, feed efficiency and the incidence of skeletal and metabolic disease in full fed and feed restricted broiler and roaster chickens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 1:33-41 https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/1.1.33
  17. Cueva, S., H. Sillau, A. Valenzuela and H. Ploog. 1974. High altitude induced pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure in broiler chickens. Res. Vet. Sci. 16:370-374
  18. Vereijken, A. L. J. and G. A. A. Albers. 1990. The genetics of ascites susceptibility in broilers. In: Proceedings of the Vııı European Poultry Conference Barcelona, Spain. pp. 525-528
  19. Bruzual, J. J., S. D. Peak, J. Brake and E. D. Peeblest. 2000. Effect of relative humidity during the last five days of incubation and brooding temperature on performance of broiler chicks from young broiler breeders. Poult. Sci. 79:1385-1391 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.10.1385
  20. Luger, D., D. Shinder, V. Rzepakovsky, M. Rusal and S. Yahav. 2001. Association between weight gain, blood parameters, and thyroid hormones and the development of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 80:965-971 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/80.7.965
  21. Julian, R. J., I. Mcmillan and M. Aquinton. 1989. The effect of cold and dietary energy on right ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular failure and ascites in meat type chickens. Avian Pathol. 18:675-684 https://doi.org/10.1080/03079458908418641
  22. Wideman, R. F., Jr., 1988. Ascites in poultry. Monsanto Nutr. Update 6:1-7
  23. Huchzermeyer, F. W. and A. M. C. De Ruyck. 1986. Pulmonary hypertension syndrome associated with ascites in broilers. Vet. Rec. 119:94 https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.119.4.94
  24. Maxwell, M. H., S. G. Tullett and F. G. Burton. 1987. Haemotology and morphological changes in young broiler chicks with experimentally induced hypoxia. Res. Vet. Sci. 43:331-338
  25. Julian, R. J. 1993. Ascites in poultry. Avian Pathol. 22:419-454 https://doi.org/10.1080/03079459308418934
  26. Shlosberg, A., M. Bellaiche, E. Berman, S. Perk, N. Deeb, E. Neumark and A. Cahaner. 1998. Relationship between broiler chicken hematocrit-selected parents and their progeny, with regard to hematocrit, mortality from ascites and bodyweight. Res. Vet. Sci. 64:105-109 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5288(98)90004-2
  27. SAS Institute, Inc. 1989. A user's guide to SAS. SAS Institute, Inc. Cary, NC
  28. Balog, J. M., N. B. Anthony, B. D. Kidd, X. Liu, M. A. Cooper, G. R. Huff, W. E. Huff, R. F. Widemann and N. C. Rath. 2001. Genetic selection of broiler lines that differ in their ascites susceptibility 2. response of the ascites lines to cold stress and bronchus occlusion. In Proceedings 13th European Symposium On Poultry Nutrition, Blankenberghe, Belgium, pp. 329-330
  29. Vogelaere, P., G. Savourey, G. Daklunder, J. Lecroart, M. Brasseur, S. Bekaert and J. Bittel. 1992. Reversal of cold induced haemoconcentration. European J. Appl. Physiol. 64:244-249 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00626287
  30. Akyıldız, R. 1984. Yemler Bilgisi Laboratuar Kılavuzu (Turkish of: Laboratory guide of Feeds and Feed Technology). Ank. Univ. Zir. Fak. Yay. 895, Uygulama Kılavuzu Ankara. pp. 213-236
  31. Arce, J., M. Berger and C. L. Coello. 1992. Control of the ascites syndrome by feed restriction techniques. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 1:1-5
  32. Deeb, N., A. Shlosberg and A. Cahaner. 2002. Genotype by environment interaction with broiler genotypes differing in growth rate. 4. association between responses to heat stress and to cold induced ascites. Poult. Sci. 81:1454-1462 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/81.10.1454
  33. Gleeson, M. 1986. Respiratory adjustments of the unanaesthetized chicken, gallus domesticus, to elevated metabolism elicited by 2,4 dinitrophenol or cold exposure. Comp. Biochem. Phys. 83a: 283-289
  34. Maxwell, M. H., S. Spence, G. W. Robertson and M. A. Mitchell. 1990. Heamatological and morphological responses of broiler chicks to hypoxia. Avian Pathol. 19:23-40 https://doi.org/10.1080/03079459008418653
  35. Yahav, S., A. Straschnow, I. Plavnik and S. Hurwitz. 1997. Blood system response of chickens to changes in environmental temperature. Poult. Sci. 76:627-633 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.4.627
  36. Yersin, A. G., W. E. Huff, L. F. Kubena, M. H. Elissalde, R. B. Harvey, D. A. Witzel and L. E. Giror. 1992. Changes in haematological, blood gas, and serum biochemical variables in broilers during exposure to simulated high altitude. Avian Diseases 36:189-196 https://doi.org/10.2307/1591489
  37. Balog, J. M., N. B. Anthony, M. A. Cooper, B. D. Kidd, G. R. Huff, W. E. Huff and N. C. Rath. 2000. Ascites syndrome and related pathologies in feed restricted broilers raised in a hypobaric chamber. Poult. Sci. 79:318-323 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.3.318
  38. Shlosberg, A., G. Pano, J. Handji and E. Berman. 1992. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of ascites in broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 33:141-148 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669208417451
  39. Wideman, R. F. and C. Tackett. 2000. Cardio-pulmonary function in preascitic (hypoxemic) or normal broilers reared at warm or cold temperatures: effect of acute inhalation of 100% oxygen. Poult. Sci. 79:257-264 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.2.257
  40. Acar, N., F.G. Sizemore, G. R. Leach, R. F. Jr. Wideman, R. L. Owen and G. F. Barbato. 1995. Growth of broiler chickens in response to feed restriction regimes to reduce ascites. Poult. Sci. 74:833-843 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0740833
  41. Barbato, G. F. 1997. Selection for growth and poultry welfare: a genetic perspective. In: Proceedings the fifth european symposium on poultry welfare, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands. pp. 63-71
  42. Owen, R. L., R. F. Jr. Wideman, R. M. Leach, B. S. Cowen, P. A. Dunn and B. C. Ford. 1995. Effect of age of exposure and dietary acidification or alkalinization on mortality due to pulmonary hypertension syndrome. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 3:244- 252

Cited by

  1. Changes of haematic parameters, redox status and mitochondrial complex activity in the heart and liver of broilers fed with different density diets under low ambient temperature vol.42, pp.4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2013.800941
  2. Identification of differentially expressed genes in hypothalamus of chicken during cold stress vol.41, pp.4, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-014-3075-z
  3. The Effects of Different Eggshell Temperatures Between Embryonic Day 10 and 18 on Broiler Performance and Susceptibility to Ascites vol.17, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-635X1703387-394
  4. Effect of early feed restriction on physiological responses, performance and ascites incidence in broiler chickens raised in normal or cold environment vol.11, pp.02, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731116001555
  5. Effects of curcumin and nanocurcumin on growth performance, blood gas indices and ascites mortalities of broiler chickens reared under normal and cold stress conditions vol.16, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.1290510
  6. Effects of curcumin or nanocurcumin on blood biochemical parameters, intestinal morphology and microbial population of broiler chickens reared under normal and cold stress conditions vol.46, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2017.1284077
  7. Effects of dietary guanidinoacetic acid and betaine supplementation on performance, blood biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of broilers subjected to cold stress vol.46, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2018.1450751
  8. Clinical, haematological, and serum biochemical alterations due to spontaneously occurring pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broiler chicken reared under temperate climatic conditions of Northern Himalayas vol.27, pp.6, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2775-5