DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Defoliation Effects on Root and Rhizome Development of Kura Clover

  • Kim, B.W. ;
  • Albrecht, K.A.
  • Received : 2005.07.05
  • Accepted : 2005.12.06
  • Published : 2006.05.01

Abstract

There is limited information on the relationship between defoliation and root and rhizome development of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.). To determine the effects of defoliation severity on root and rhizome growth of young kura clover plant (seedling about 8 wk old), this research was conducted in 2002 (Experiment 1) and 2003 (Experiment 2) in a glasshouse at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Four kura clover entries were used in this experiment: two were started from seed materials (ARS-2678 and 'Rhizo') and two were clones from mature, field-grown Rhizo kura clover plant. Three defoliation frequencies (2-, 4- and 6-wk intervals) and two defoliation intensities (complete and partial defoliation) were imposed on each of the four kura clover entries. Root, rhizome, and leaf dry matter (DM) generally increased with less frequent defoliation, however, the increase in rhizome DM was not significant between 4- or 6-wk defoliation periods. The root and leaf DM under complete defoliation (CD) were significantly lower than under partial defoliation (PD). In Exp. 1, rhizome DM was not significantly different between CD and PD; it was significantly lower under CD in Exp. 2. ARS-2678 showed excellent root development characteristics, however, its rhizome DM was significantly lower than Rhizo clones. The rhizome development from Rhizo clones was greater than that from seed materials. If maximum root and rhizome growth are expected from young kura clover plant, the intensity and frequency of defoliation should be minimized or defoliation should be avoided.

Keywords

Kura Clover;Rhizome;Root

References

  1. Bell, C. C. and I. M. Ritchie. 1989. The effect of frequency and height of defoliation on the production and persistence of 'Grasslands Matua' prairie grass. Grass Forage Sci. 44:245- 248 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1989.tb01933.x
  2. Speer, G. S. and D. W. Allinson. 1985. (Trifolium ambiguum): Legume for forage and soil conservation. Econ. Bot. 39:165- 176 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02907841
  3. Turner, D. J. 1968. Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.-some effect of rhizome fragmentation, rhizome burial and defoliation. Weed Res. 8:298-308 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1968.tb01434.x
  4. Peterson, P. R., C. C. Sheaffer, R. M. Jordan and C. J. Christians. 1994. Responses of kura clover to sheep grazing and clipping: II. Below-ground morphology, persistence and total nonstructural carbohydrates. Agron. J. 86:660-667 https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1994.00021962008600040014x
  5. King, J., W. I. C. Lamb and M. T. McGregor. 1978. Effect of partial and complete defoliation on regrowth of white clover plants. J. Br. Grassl. Soc. 33:49-55 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1978.tb00796.x
  6. SAS Institute, Inc. 1988. SAS/STAT user's guide: release 6.03 th ed. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC
  7. Grant, S. A. and G. T. Barthram. 1991. The effects of contrasting cutting regimes on the components of clover and grass growth in microswards. Grass Forage Sci. 16:1-13
  8. Sheaffer, C. C., G. D. Lacefield and V. L. Marble. 1988. Cutting schedules and stands. p. 411-437. In (Ed. A. A. Hanson et al.) Alfalfa and alfalfa improvement. Agron. Monogr. 29. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison. Wl
  9. Halliday, J. and J. S. Pate. 1976. The acetylene reduction assay as a means of studying nitrogen fixation in white clover and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) under sward and laboratory conditions. J. Br. Grassl. Soc. 31:29-35 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1976.tb01112.x
  10. Taylor, R. W. and G. A. Meche. 1982. Kura clover development and response to cutting frequency and height. Prog. Rep. Clovers Spec. Purpose Legumes Res. 15:41-45
  11. Bryant, W. G. 1977. Caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.): a review. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. 40:11-19
  12. Saldivar, A. J., W. R. Occumpaugh, R. R. Gildersleeve and G. M. Prine. 1992. Growth analysis of 'Florigraze' rhizoma peanut: Shoot and rhizome dry matter production. Agron. J. 84:444- 449 https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1992.00021962008400030018x
  13. Spencer, K., F. W. Hely, A. G. Govaars, M. Zorin and L. J. Hamilton. 1975. Adaptability of Trifolium ambiguum Bieb. To a Victorian montane environment. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. 41:268-270
  14. Evans, P. S. 1973. The effect of repeated defoliation at three levels on root growth of five pasture species. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 16:31-34 https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1973.10421155
  15. Ryle, G. J. A., C. E. Powell and A. J. Gordon. 1985. Defoliation in white clover: Responses, photosynthesis and N2 fixation. Annals Bot. 56:9-18 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a086998

Cited by

  1. to Grazing vol.2014, pp.2090-0139, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/573415