DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Size and Rate of Maturing on Carcass Composition of Pasture- or Feedlot- Developed Steers

  • Brown, A.H. Jr. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Camfield, P.K. (Oklahoma Panhandle State University) ;
  • Baublits, R.T. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Pohlman, F.W. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Johnson, Z.B. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Brown, C.J. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Tabler, G.T. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Sandelin, B.A. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas)
  • Received : 2005.08.04
  • Accepted : 2005.11.24
  • Published : 2006.05.01

Abstract

Steers (n = 335) of known genetic backgrounds from four fundamentally different growth types were subjected to two production systems to study the main effects and possible interactive effects on carcass composition. Growth types were animals with genetic potential for large mature weight (LL), intermediate mature weight-late maturing (IL), intermediate mature weight-early maturing (IE), and small mature weight-early maturing (SE). Each year, in a nine year study, calves of each growth type were weaned and five steers of each growth type were developed on pasture or feedlot and harvested at approximately 20 and 14 mo of age, respectively. Data recorded were chilled carcass weight and percentages of forequarter, foreshank, chuck, rib, plate, brisket, hindquarter, round, rump, shortloin, sirloin, flank, lean, fat, bone, and retail cuts. The growth $type{\times}production$ system interaction was an important source of variation in chilled carcass weight (p = 0.0395) and percentage retail cuts (p = 0.001), lean (p = 0.001), fat (p = 0.001), rump (p = 0.0454), shortloin (p = 0.0487), and flank (p = 0.001). The ranking of the growth $type{\times}production$ system means for percentage lean was LL-pasture>IL-pasture = IE-pasture = SE-pasture>LL-feedlot, IL-feedlot>IE-feedlot = SE-feedlot. The growth $type{\times}production$ system interaction was non-significant (p>0.05) for forequarter, foreshank, chuck, rib, plate, brisket, hindquarter, round and bone. Growth types of IE and SE yielded greater (p<0.05) mean forequarter than did growth types of IL and LL ($51.6{\pm}0.3$ and $51.5{\pm}0.3$ vs. $51.1{\pm}0.3$ and $50.8{\pm}0.3%$). Mean bone was highest (p<0.05) for the LL growth type and lowest (p<0.05) for the SE growth type ($19.5{\pm}0.5$ vs. $16.8{\pm}0.5%$). Mean bone was greater (p<0.05) for the pastured steers than for the feedlot steers ($21.8{\pm}0.8$ vs. $14.5{\pm}0.6%$). These data indicate that growth type responded differently in the two production systems and that these results should be helpful in the match of genetics to production resources.

Keywords

Beef;Growth Types;Production System;Carcass Composition

References

  1. Arthur, P. F., H. Hearnshaw, D. Johnson and P. D. Stephenson. 1995. Evaluation of Angus, Charolais, and Hereford as terminal sire breeds on Hereford and first-cross cows. II. Carcass characteristics and retail yield of progeny. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 46:1245-1258 https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9951245
  2. Bidner, T. P., A. R. Schupp, A. B. Mohamad, N. C. Ramore, R. E. Montgomery, C. P. Bagley and K. W. McMillin. 1986. Acceptability of beef from Angus-Hereford or Angus- Hereford-Brahman steers finished on all-forage or a highenergy diet. J. Anim. Sci. 62:381-387 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.622381x
  3. Brody, S. 1945. Bioenergetics and Growth. 1st ed. Page 529. Reinhold Publishing Inc., New York
  4. Brown, A. H., Jr., P. K. Camfield, Z. P. Johnson, L. Y. Rakes, F. W. Pohlman, C. J. Brown, B. A. Sandelin and R. T. Baublits. 2005. Interaction of Beef Growth Type$\times$Production System for Carcass Traits of Steers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:259-266 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.259
  5. Camfield, P. K., A. H. Brown, Jr., Z. B. Johnson, C. J. Brown, P. K. Lewis and L. Y. Rakes. 1999. Effects of growth type on carcass traits of pasture-or feedlot-developed steers. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2437-2443 https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.7792437x
  6. Consortium. 1998. Guide for care and use of agricultural animals in agricultural research and teaching. Consortium for Developing a Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching, Champaign, IL
  7. Dixon, R. M. and C. R. Stockdale. 1999. Associative effects between forages and grains: consequences for feed utilization. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 50:757-773 https://doi.org/10.1071/AR98165
  8. Flora, C. B. 2001. Midwestern beef and the environment. The ecosystem strengths of better integrated value chains. Paper presented at Midwest Region Commodities and the Environment Conference. Chicago, IL
  9. Garcia-de-Siles, J. L., J. H. Ziegler, L. L. Wilson and J. D. Sink. 1977. Growth, carcass, and muscle characters of Hereford and Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 44:973-984 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1977.446973x
  10. Gregory, K. E., L. V. Cundiff, R. M. Koch, M. E. Dikeman and M. Koohmaraie. 1994. Breed effects and retained heterosis for growth, carcass and meat traits in advanced generations of composite population of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 72:933-850
  11. Griffin, D. B., J. W. Savell, J. B. Morgan, R. P. Garret and H. R. Cross. 1992. Estimates of subprimal yields from beef carcasses as affected by USDA grades, subcutaneous fat trim level, and carcass sex class and type. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2411-2430 https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.7082411x
  12. Harrison, A. R., M. E. Smith, D. M. Allen, M. C. Hunt, C. L. Lastner and D. H. Kropf. 1978. Nutritional regime effects on quality and yield characteristics of beef. J. Anim. Sci. 47:383- 388 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1978.472383x
  13. Koch, R. M., M. E. Dikeman, R. J. Lipsey, D. M. Allen and J. D. Crouse. 1979. Characterization of biological types of cattlecycle II: III. Carcass composition, quality, and palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 49:448-460 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1979.492448x
  14. Koch, R. M., M. E. Dikeman and J. D. Crouse. 1982. Characterization of biological types of cattle (cycle III). III. Carcass composition, quality, and palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 54:35-45 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1982.54135x
  15. May, S. C., W. L. Miles, J. W. Edwards, F. L. Williams, J. W. Wise, J. B. Morgan, J. W. Savell and H. R. Cross. 1992. Beef carcass composition of slaughter cattle differing in frame size, muscle score and external fatness. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2431-2445 https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.7082431x
  16. Miller, M. R., C.B. Ramsey, S. W. Claborn and C. K. Wu. 1996. Subprimal cutability and carcass value as effected by cattle type. J. Muscle Foods. 7:17-27 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4573.1996.tb00584.x
  17. Reiling, B. A., G. H. Rouse and D. A. Duello. 1992. Predicting percentage of retail yield from carcass measurements, the yield equation and closely trimmed boxed beef weights. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2151-2158 https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.7072151x
  18. Sainz, R. D., F. Dela Torre and W. G. Oltjen. 1995. Compensatory growth and carcass quality in growth-restricted and refed beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2971-2979
  19. Sapp, P. H., M. A. McCann and S. E. Williams. 1996. Evaluation of performance and carcass characteristic of pasture and/or grain-fed steers. In Animal and Dairy Science Department 1996 Annual Report, (Ed. Scott A. Martin). College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The University of Georgia. pp. 47-53
  20. Schaake, S. L., G. C. Skelley, E. Halpin, L. W. Grimes, R. B. Brown, D. L. Cross and C. E. Thompson. 1993. Carcass and meat sensory traits of steers finished on fescue and clover, summer forage or for different periods in drylot. J. Anim. Sci. 71:3199-3205
  21. Smith, G. M., J. D. Crouse, B. W. Mandigo and K. L. Neer. 1977. Influence of feeding regime and biological type on growth, composition, and palatability of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 45:236- 253 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1977.452236x
  22. Tudor, G. D. 1992. Effects of diet on fat deposition in cattle. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 19:89
  23. Wanderstock, J. J. and J. I. Miller. 1948. Quality and palatability of beef as affected by method of feeding and carcass grade. Food Res. 13:291-303 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1948.tb16624.x
  24. Vallentine, J. F. 1990. Grazing Management. Academic Press, Inc. New York
  25. Dinius, D. A., R. R. Oltjen and T. S. Rumsey. 1975. Pelleted forage diets plus supplemental energy and feed additives for finishing beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 41:868-875 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1975.413868x
  26. Brown, A. H., Jr., J. J. Chewning, Z. B. Johnson, W. C. Lowe and C. J. Brown. 1991. Effects of 84-, 112- and 140-day postweaning feedlot performance tests for beef bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 69:451-461 https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.692451x
  27. Tatum, J. D., H. G. Dolezal, F. L. Williams, Jr., R. A. Bowling and R. E. Taylor. 1986. Effects of feeder-cattle frame size and muscle thickness on subsequent growth and carcass development. II. Absolute growth and associated changes in carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci. 62:121-131 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.621121x
  28. USDA. 1988. Institutional Meat Purchase specifications for Fresh Beef. Agric. Marketing Serv., USDA, Washington, DC
  29. Koch, R. M. and M. E. Dikeman. 1977. Characterization of biological types of cattle. V. Carcass wholesale cut composition. J. Anim. Sci. 45:30-42 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1977.45130x
  30. Stiffler, D. M., C. M. Griffin, C. E. Murphy, G. C. Smith and J. W. Savell. 1985. Characterization of cutability and palatability attributes among different slaughter groups of beef cattle. Meat Sci. 13:167-182 https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(85)90056-7
  31. Sully, R. J. and J. H. L. Morgan. 1982. The influence of feeding level and type of feed on the carcasses of steers. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 33:721-729 https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9820721
  32. Muir, P. D., J. M. Deaker and M. D. Brown. 1998. Effects of forage- and grain-based feeding systems on beef quality: A Review. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 41:623-635 https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1998.9513346
  33. Robinson, D. L., D. M. Ferguson, V. H. Oddy, D. Perry and J. Thompson. 2001. Genetic and environmental influences on beef tenderness. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 41:997-1003 https://doi.org/10.1071/EA00039
  34. Steen, R. W. J., N. P. Lavery, D. J. Kilpatrick and M. G. Porter. 2003. Effects of pasture and high-concentrate diets on the performance of beef cattle, carcass composition at equal growth rates, and the fatty acid composition of beef. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 46:69-81 https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.2003.9513533
  35. Butts, W. T. Jr., E. R. Lievall, W. R. Backus and J. A. Corrick. 1980b. Relationships among definable characteristics of feeder-calves, subsequent performance and carcass traits. II. Subjective scores. J. Anim. Sci. 51:1306-1313 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1981.5161306x
  36. Williams, J. E., D. G. Wagner, L. E. Walters, G. W. Horn, G. R. Waller, P. L. Sims and J. J. Guenther. 1983. Effect of production systems on performance, body composition and lipid and mineral profiles of soft tissue in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 57:1020-1027 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1983.5741020x
  37. Johnson, Z. B., C. J. Brown and A. H. Brown, Jr. 1990. Evaluation of growth patterns of beef cows. Ark. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bul. 923
  38. Koch, R. M., M. E. Dikeman, D. M. Allen, M. May, J. A. Crouse and D. R. Champion. 1976. Characterization of biological types of cattle. III. Carcass composition, quality, and palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 43: 48-62 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1976.43148x
  39. NRC. 1976. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 7th ed. National Academy Press. Washington, DC
  40. Belk, K. E., J. D. Tatum and F. L. Williams, Jr. 1991. Deposition and distribution of carcass fat for steers differing in frame size and muscle thickness. J. Anim. Sci. 69:609-616 https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.692609x
  41. Williams, S. E., J. D. Tatum and T. L. Stanton. 1989. The effects of muscle thickness and time on feed on hot fat trim yield, carcass characteristics, and boneless subprimal yields. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2669-2676 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1989.67102669x
  42. Butts, W. T., Jr., W. R. Backus, E. R. Lidvall, J. A. Corrick and R. F. Montgomery. 1980a. Relationships among definable characteristics of feeder-calves, subsequent performance and carcass traits. I. Objective measures. J. Anim. Sci. 51:1297- 1305 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1981.5161297x
  43. Dolezal, H. G., J. D. Tatum and F. L. Williams, Jr. 1993. Effects of feeder cattle frame size, muscle thickness, and age class on days fed, weight, and carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2975-2985
  44. Stonaker, H. H., M. H. Hazaleus and S. S. Wheeler. 1952. Feedlot and carcass characteristics of individually fed comprest and conventional type Hereford steers. J. Anim. Sci. 11:17-25 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1952.11117x
  45. Berg, R. T. and R. M. Butterfield. 1968. Growth patterns of bovine muscle, fat and bone. J. Anim. Sci. 17:611-619
  46. Murray, D. M., N. M. Tulloh and W. H. Winter. 1974. Effects of three different growth rates on empty body weight, carcass weight, and dissected carcass composition of cattle. J. Agric. Sci. 82:535-547 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600051431
  47. Price, M. A. 1976. Changes in body composition associated with weight loss in early- and later-maturing types steers. Aust. J. Agri. Res. 27:729-738 https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9760729
  48. Priyanto, R., E. R. Johnson and D. G. Taylor. 1999. The economic importance of genotype in steers fed pasture or leucerne hay and prepared for the Australian and Japanese beef markets. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 42:393-404 https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1999.9513388
  49. Taylor, D. G. 1982. A comparative study of Hereford and Friesian steers. II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 33:157-163 https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9820157
  50. Davies, H. L. 1977. Continued studies on the effect of grain or pasture on the carcass composition and meat quality of Friesian steers. Aust. J. Agri. Res. 28:775-761
  51. Savell, J. W., R. E. Branson, H. R. Cross, D. M. Stiffler, D. B. Griffin and G. C. Smith. 1987. National consumer retail beef study: Palatability evaluation of beef loin steaks that differ in marbling. J. Food Sci. 52:517-519 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb06664.x
  52. Allen, V. G., J. P. Fontenot, R. F. Kelly and D. R. Notter. 1996. Forage Systems for Beef Production from Conception to Slaughter: III. Finishing Systems. J. Anim. Sci. 74:625-638 https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.743625x
  53. Bowling, R. A., J. K. Riggs, G. C. Smith, Z. L. Carpenter, R. L. Reddish and O. D. Butler. 1978. Production, carcass, and palatability characteristics of steers produced by different management systems. J. Anim. Sci. 46:333-340 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1978.462333x
  54. Norton, M. C. 1993. Effects of maturation rate and frame size on the yield and composition of beef carcasses finished on either pasture or grain. MS Thesis, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cited by

  1. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore bulls submitted to different nutritional strategies during cow–calf and stocker phase pp.1751-732X, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731118002859