DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Dietary Bacillus-based Probiotic on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, Blood Characteristics and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Finishing Pigs

  • Chen, Y.J. (Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Min, B.J. (Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Cho, J.H. (Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Kwon, O.S. (Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Son, K.S. (Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, H.J. (Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, I.H. (Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University)
  • Received : 2005.07.05
  • Accepted : 2005.11.10
  • Published : 2006.04.01

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation with bacillus-based probiotic (Bacillus subtilis, $1.0{\times}10^7CFU/g$; Bacillus coagulans, $2.0{\times}10^6CFU/g$ and Lactobacillus acidophilus, $5.0{\times}10^6CFU/g$) on finishing pigs growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood characteristics and fecal noxious gas content and to determine the optimal addition level of this probiotic preparation. A total of forty eight pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of $90.60{\pm}2.94kg$ were allotted to three dietary treatments (four pigs per pen with four pens per treatment) according to a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatment included: 1) CON (basal diet); 2) BP1 (basal diet+bacillus-based probiotic 0.1%) and 3) BP2 (basal diet+bacillus-based probiotic 0.2%). The experiment lasted 6 weeks. Through the entire experimental period, ADG was improved by 11% (p<0.05) in pigs fed diets supplemented with 0.2% bacillus-based probiotic compared to pigs fed the basal diet. ADFI and gain/feed were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05). Supplementation of bacillus-based probiotic did not affect either DM and N digestibilities or blood characteristics (p>0.05) of pigs. Fecal ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3$-N) measured at the end of experiment was reduced (p<0.05) when pigs were fed the diet with 0.2% bacillus-based probiotic. Fecal butyric acid concentration also decreased significantly (p<0.05) whereas acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) when pigs were fed diets with added bacillus-based probiotic. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of bacillus-based probiotic can increase growth performance and decrease fecal noxious gas content concentration.

References

  1. Adlerberth, I., M. Cerquetti, I. Poilane, A. Wold and A. Collignon. 2000. Mechanisms of colonisation and colonisation resistance of the digestive tract. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 11:223-239
  2. Apgar, G. A., E. T. Kornegay, M. D. Lindemann and C. M. Wood. 1993. The effect of feeding various levels of Bifidobacteriurn globosurn A on the performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and immunity of weanling pigs and on the performance and carcass measurements of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:2173-2179
  3. Bloksma, N., E. De Heer, M. Van Dijk and M. Willers. 1979. Adjuvanticity of Lactobacilli. I. Differential effects of viable and killed bacteria. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 37:367-375
  4. Busse, F. W. 1993. Comparison measurements of the house climate in swine stables with and without respiratory diseases or cannibalism. In: Livestock Environment (Ed. E. Collins and C. Boon). Fourth International Symposium, University of Warwick, Coventry, England. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. pp. 904- 908
  5. Chen, Y. J., K. S. Son, B. J. Min, J. H. Cho, O. S. Kwon and I. H. Kim. 2005b. Effects of dietary probiotic on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood characteristics and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18(10):1464-1468 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.1464
  6. Crook, B., J. F. Robertson, S. A. T. Glass, E. M. Botheroyd, J. Lacey and M. D. Topping. 1991. Airborne dust, ammonia, microorganisms and antigens in pig confinement houses and the respiratory health of exposed farm-workers. Am. Indust. Hygiene Assoc. J. 52:271-279 https://doi.org/10.1080/15298669191364721
  7. Hong, J. W., I. H. Kim, O. S. Kwon, J. H. Kim, B. J. Min and W. B. Lee. 2002. Effects of dietary probiotics supplementation on growth performance and fecal gas emission in nursing and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor.) 44:305-314 https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2002.44.3.305
  8. Kornegay, E. T. and C. R. Risley. 1996. Nutrient digestibilities of a corn-soybean meal diet as influenced by Bacillus products fed to finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 74:799-805 https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.744799x
  9. Maxwell, C. V., D. S. Buchanan, F. N. Owens, S. E. Gilliland, W. G. Luce and R. Vencl. 1983. Effect of probiotic supplementation on performance, fecal parameters and digestibility in growing-finishing swine. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Anim. Sci. Res. Rep. pp. 114:157
  10. O'Neill, D. H. and V. R. Phillips. 1992. A review of the control of odour nuisance from livestock buildings: Part 3, properties of the odorous substances which have been identified in livestock wastes or in the air around them. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 53:23-50 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8634(92)80072-Z
  11. Takahashi, T., E. Nakagawa, T. Nara, T. Yajima and T. Kuwata. 1998. Effects of orally ingested bifidobacterium longum on the mucosal IgA response of mice to dietary antigens. Bio. Biotechnol. Biochem. 62:10-15 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.62.10
  12. van Breemen, N., P. A. Burrough, E. J. Velthorst, H. F. van Dobben, Toke de Wit, T. B. Ridder, H. F. R. Reijnders. 1982. Soil acidification from atmospheric ammonium sulphate in forest canopy throughfall. Nat. 299:548-550 https://doi.org/10.1038/299548a0
  13. Vandenbergh, P. A. 1993. Lactic acid bacteria, their metabolic products and interference with microbial growth. FEMS Microbiology Review. 12:221-238 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.1993.tb00020.x
  14. Dunne, C., L. Murphy, S. Flynn, L. O'Mahony, S. O'Halloran, M. Feeney, D. Morrissey, G. Thornton, G. Fitzgerald, C. Daly, B. Kiely, E. M. M. Quigley, G. C. O'Sullivan, F. Shanahan and J. Kevin. 1999. Probiotics: from myth to reality. Demonstration of functionality in animal models of disease and in human clinical trials. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 76:279-292 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1002065931997
  15. Vitini, E., S. Alvarez, M. Medina, M. Medici, M. V. de Budeguer and G. Perdigon. 2000. Gut mucosal immunostimulation by lactic acid bacteria. Biocell. 24:223-232
  16. Mackie, R. I., P. G. Stroot and V. H. Varel. 1998. Biochemical identification and biological origin of key odor components in livestock waste. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1331-1342
  17. AOAC. 1995. Official method of analysis. 16th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC
  18. Chaney, A. L. and E. P. Marbach. 1962. Modified regents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin. Chem. 8:131
  19. Spoelstra, S. F. 1980. Origin of objectionable odorous components in piggery wastes and the possibility of applying indicator components for studying odour development. Agric. Env. 5:241-260 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-1131(80)90004-1
  20. Fernandes, C. F. and K. M. Shahani. 1990. Anticarcinogenic and immunological properties of dietary lactobacilli. J. Food Prot. 53:704-710 https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-53.8.704
  21. Jonsson, E. and P. Conway. 1992. Probiotics for pigs. In: (Ed. R. Fuller) Probiotics: The Scientific Basis. Chapman and Hall, London. pp. 260-316
  22. Slanina, S. 1994. Forest dieback and ammonia-a typical Dutch problem. Chemistry International. 16:2-3
  23. Ferket, P. R., E. van Heugten, T. A. T. G. van Kempen and R. Angel. 2002. Nutritional strategies to reduce environmental emissions from nonruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 80 (E. Suppl. 2):E168-E182 https://doi.org/10.2527/animalsci2002.80E-Suppl_2E168x
  24. Kil, D. Y., S. J. Lim, J. Z. Tian, B. G. Kim, K. S. Kim and Y. Y. Kim. 2004. Effect of continuous feeding of probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen and immune responses in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor.) 46:39-48 https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2004.46.1.039
  25. Kluber, E. F., D. S. Pollmann and F. Blecha. 1985. Effect of feeding Streptococcus faecium to artificially reared pigs on growth, hematology and cell-mediated immunity. Nutr. Rep. Int. 32:57
  26. SAS. 1996. SAS user's guide. Release 6.12 edition. SAS Institute. Inc Cary NC. USA
  27. Drummond, J. G., S. E. Curtis, J. Simon and H. W. Norton. 1980. Effects of aerial ammonia on growth and health of young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 50:1085-1091 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1980.5061085x
  28. Nousiainen, J. and J. Setala. 1993. Lactic acid bacteria as animal probiotics. In Lactic Acid Bacteria. (Ed. S. Salminen and A. von Wright). New York, Marcel Dekker. pp. 315-356
  29. Xuan, Z. N., J. D. Kim, K. N. Heo, H. J. Jung, J. H. Lee, Y. K. Han, Y. Y. Kim and I. H. Han. 2001. Study on the development of a probiotics complex for weaned pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1425-1428 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.1425
  30. Lim, H. S., B. H. Kim and I. K. Paik. 2004. Effects of Natufermen$^{\circR}$ supplementation to the diet on the performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor.) 46:981-988 https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2004.46.6.981
  31. Alexopoulos, C., I. E. Georgoulakis, A. Tzivara, C. S. Kyriakis, A. Govaris and S. C. Kyriakis. 2004. J. Vet. Med. Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med. 51:306 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0442.2004.00637.x
  32. Argenzio, R. A. and M. Southworth. 1974. Sites of organic acid production and absorption in gastrointestinal tract of the pig. Am. J. Physiol. 228:454-460
  33. Ji, F. and S. W. Kim. 2002. Reducing odor in swine production: Effect of enzymes and probiotics on ammonia production. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 80 (Suppl. 1)
  34. Chen, Y. J., K. S. Son, B. J. Min, J. H. Cho, O. S. Kwon and I. H. Kim. 2005a. Effects of dietary probiotic on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood characteristics and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1464-1468 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.1464
  35. Malin, M., H.Suomalainen, M. Saxelin and E. Isolauri. 1996. Promotion of IgA immune response in patients with Crohn's disease by oral bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus GG. Annals Nutr. Metab. 40:137-145 https://doi.org/10.1159/000177907
  36. Lessard, M. and G. J. Brisson. 1987. Effect of a lactobacillus fermentation product on growth, immune response and fecal enzyme activity in weaned pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 67:509 https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas87-049
  37. NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirement of pigs. 10th Edition. National Research Council, Academy Press. Washington, DC
  38. Otto, E. R., M. Yokoyama, S. Hengemuehle, R. D. von Bermuth, T. van Kempen and N. L. Trottier. 2003. Ammonia, volatile fatty acids, phenolics, and odor offensiveness in manure from growing pigs fed diets reduced in protein concentration. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1754-1763
  39. Kim, I. H., J. D. Hancock, R. H. Hines and C. R. Risley. 1993. Effects of cellulase and bacterial feed additives on the nutritional value of sorghum grain for finishing pigs. Kansas Agric. Exp. Sta. Rep. Prog. No. 695:144
  40. Wenk, C. 2000. Recent advances in animal feed additives such as metabolic modifiers, antimicrobial agents, probiotics, enzymes and highly available minerals. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:86- 95 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.86
  41. Park, D. Y., H. Namkung and I. K. Paik. 2001. Effects of supplementary enzymes or probiotics on the performance and ammonia gas production in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor.) 43:485-496
  42. Shon, K. S., J. W. Hong, O. S. Kwon, B. J. Min, W. B. Lee, I. H. Kim, Y. H. Park and I. S. Lee. 2005. Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-based direct-fed microbial supplementation for growing-finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:370-374 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.370
  43. Kornegay, E. T., C. M. Wood, G. G. Ball and C. R. Risley. 1990. Use of Lactobacillus acidophilus for growing and finishing pigs. VA Polytech. Inst. State Univ. Anim. Sci. Res. Rep. 9:13
  44. Stavric, S. and E. T. Kornegay. 1995. Microbial probiotic for pigs and poultry. Biotechnology in Animal Feeds and Animal Feeding. (Ed. R. J. Wallace and A. Chesson). Weinheim:VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. pp. 205-231
  45. Bomba, A., R. Nemcova, S. Gancarcıkova, R. Herich, P. Guba and D. Mudronova. 2002. Improvement of the probiotic effect of micro-organisms by their combination with maltodextrins, fructo-oligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Br. Journal of Nutrition. 88 (Suppl.)1:95-99 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002634
  46. Perdigon, G., S. Alvarez and A. Pesce de Ruiz Holgado. 1991. Immunoadjuvant activity of oral Lactobacillus casei: influence of dose on the secretory immune response and protective capacity in intestinal infections. Dairy Res. 58:485-496 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900030090

Cited by

  1. Effect of probiotics supplementation in diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, faecal microbial population and faecal noxious gas content in growing pigs vol.41, pp.1, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2012.739092
  2. Dietary Enterococcus faecalis LAB31 Improves Growth Performance, Reduces Diarrhea, and Increases Fecal Lactobacillus Number of Weaned Piglets vol.10, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116635
  3. The Effect of Bacillus-based Feed Additive on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Fecal Gas Emission, and Pen Cleanup Characteristics of Growing-finishing Pigs vol.28, pp.7, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0066
  4. Effects of multistrain probiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, faecal microbial shedding, faecal score and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs vol.100, pp.6, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12501
  5. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure vol.11, pp.6, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158089
  6. Effects of supplementing growing-finishing pig diets with Bacillus spp. probiotic on growth performance and meat-carcass grade qualitytraits vol.45, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902016000300002
  7. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and Bacillus subtilis PB6 supplementation on growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of piglets during the suckling period vol.56, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1223-z
  8. Dietary inclusion of different multi-strain complex probiotics; effects on performance in broilers vol.58, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2016.1257112
  9. Effect of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis supplementation in diets with low- and high-protein content on ileal crude protein and amino acid digestibility and intestinal microbiota composition of growing pigs vol.8, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-017-0168-2
  10. Influences of quorum-quenching probiotic bacteria on the gut microbial community and immune function in weaning pigs pp.13443941, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12954
  11. Inclusion of dietary multi-species probiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality traits, faecal microbiota and diarrhoea score in growing–finishing pigs pp.1828-051X, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.1340097
  12. DSM 7134 in weanling pigs vol.46, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2017.1420655
  13. Influence of probiotics in different energy and nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, and blood characteristics in growing-finishing pigs vol.88, pp.10, 2010, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2308
  14. The effect of probiotics and polysaccharides on the gut microbiota composition and function of weaned rats vol.9, pp.3, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1039/C7FO01507K
  15. Effects of Dietary Bacillus subtilis Supplementation as Probiotics on Growth Performance and Nutrients Digestibility in Fattening Pigs vol.17, pp.12, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2018.634.640
  16. Effect of Postpartum Endocrine Function, Metabolism, and Mastitis on Fertility in High-Yielding Cows – A Review vol.18, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.2478/aoas-2018-0008
  17. complex on growth performance and faecal noxious gas emissions in growing-finishing pigs pp.00225142, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9333
  18. Effect of probiotics and xylo-oligosaccharide supplementation on nutrient digestibility, intestinal health and noxious gas emission in weanling pigs vol.31, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0908
  19. Application of Complex Probiotics in Swine Nutrition – A Review vol.18, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.2478/aoas-2018-0005
  20. Effects of dietary fermented red ginseng marc and red ginseng extract on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbial, and noxious gas emission in weanling pigs vol.46, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2018.1466708