DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Use of δ-Aminolevulinic Acid in Swine Diet: Effect on Growth Performance, Behavioral Characteristics and Hematological/Immune Status in Nursery Pigs

  • Mateo, R.D. ;
  • Morrow, J.L. ;
  • Dailey, J.W. ;
  • Ji, F. ;
  • Kim, Sung Woo
  • Received : 2004.09.26
  • Accepted : 2005.09.08
  • Published : 2006.01.01

Abstract

Certain amino acids are essential precursors of a variety of important biomolecules in addition to their major function as protein building blocks. ${\delta}$-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is synthesized from the condensed form of succinyl-CoA with glycine after decarboxylation catalyzed by ALA synthase. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of ALA supplementation on growth performance, behavioral characteristics and hematological/immune status in nursery pigs. A total of 144 pigs weaned at 21 d of age were allotted to three dietary treatments representing (-) control (w/o antibiotics; NC), (+) control (w/carbadox at 50 mg/kg; PC), and the treatment group with ALA supplementation (0.05%; TA). Each treatment had 6 pens (replicates) with 8 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed phase 1 (21.9% CP, 1.40% Lys) and 2 (20.6% CP, 1.15% Lys) experimental diets for 3 and 2 wks, respectively. Feed intake and weight gain were measured weekly during phase 1 and at the end of phase 2. At the end of phase 2, blood samples were taken and analyzed using an automated hematology analyzer. Skin color and activity of pigs (48 h) from all pens in each treatment were measured at the second week of phase 2. Growth performance was not affected (p>0.05) by the dietary supplementation of ALA during the 5 wk nursery period. Pigs in the TA (6.46) and PC (6.68) had a higher (p<0.05) number of red blood cells ($10^6cell/{\mu}L$) than pigs in the NC (6.15). Pigs in PC (12.16) had a higher (p<0.05) hemoglobin level (g/dL) than pigs in the NC group (11.29) and the TA group (11.47). Pigs in the TA and PC had darker (p<0.05) and less (p<0.05) yellow skin color than pigs in the NC. Pigs in the PC tended (p = 0.081) to be less active than pigs in the other groups. There were no differences in behavioral characteristics between the NC and the TA. The data suggest that ALA supplementation has no adverse effects on growth performance of nursery pigs. Moreover, ALA supplementation increased red blood cell counts which may be beneficial to pigs.

Keywords

${\delta}$-Aminolevulinic Acid;Antibiotics;Behavior;Hematological Status;Nursery Pigs

References

  1. Cromwell, G. L. 2001. Antimicrobial and promicrobial agents In: Swine Nutrition 2nd Ed edited by A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern CRC Press LLC, pp. 401-402
  2. Hradilek, A. and J. Neuwirt. 1989. Inhibition of cellular iron uptake by haem in mouse erythroleukaemia cells. Br. J. Haematol. 73:410-415 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.1989.tb07762.x
  3. Jover, R., F. Hoffmann, V. Scheffler-Koch and R. L. P. Lindberg. 2000. Limited heme synthesis in porphobilinogen deaminasedeficient mice impairs transcriptional activation of specific cytochrome P450 genes by Phenobarbital. Eur. J. Biochem. 267:7128-7137 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01815.x
  4. NRC. 1988 Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 9th Ed, National Academic Press, Washington, DC
  5. Ponka, P. 1997. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Iron Metabolism and Heme Synthesis: Distinct Control Mechanisms in Erythroid Cells. Blood 89:1-25
  6. Collaud, S., A. Juzeniene, J. Moan and N. Lange. 2004. On the selectivity of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX formation. Curr. Med. Chem. Anti-Canc. Agents. 3:301-316
  7. Cromwell, G. L. 2000. Why and how antibiotics are used in swine production, In: the proceedings of the pork industry conference on addressing issues of antibiotic use in livestock production (Ed. L. B. Shook). Univ. Illinois, Urbana, pp. 7-27
  8. Gardner, L. C. and T. M. Cox. 1988. Biosynthesis of heme in immature erythroid cells: The regulatory step for heme formation in the human erythron. J. Biol. Chem. 263:6676- 6682
  9. Kim, S. W., L. E. Hulbert, H. A. Rachuonyo and J. J. McGlone. 2004. Relative availability of iron in mined humic substances for weanling pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1266-1270 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.1266
  10. Neumann, J. and M. Brandsch. 2003. $\delta$-Aminolevulinic Acid Transport in Cancer Cells of the Human Extrahepatic Biliary Duct. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Fast Forward 305:219-224 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.102.046573
  11. Merck Veterinary Manual. 1991. A handbook of diagnosis, therapy, and disease prevention and control for the veterinarian. 7th ed. Merck and Co., Inc.Rahway, New Jersey, pp. 16-17
  12. Yen, J. T. and W. G. Pond. 1990. Effect of carbadox on net absorption of ammonia and glucose into hepatic portal vein of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 68:4236-4242 https://doi.org/10.2527/1990.68124236x
  13. Ponka, P., J. Neuwirt and J. Borova. 1973. The use of exogenous $\delta$-aminolevulinic acid for the studies of the regulation of haem synthesis in rabbit reticulocytes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 304:123-131 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4165(73)90121-9
  14. Yen, J. T. and J. A. Nienaber. 1992. Influence of Carbadox on fasting oxygen consumption by portal vein drained organs and by the whole animal in growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 70:478-483 https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.702478x
  15. Gallo, R. C. 1967. The Inhibitory Effect of Heme on Heme Formation In vivo: Possible Mechanism for the Regulation of Hemoglobin Synthesis. J. Clin. Invest. 46:124-132 https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI105505
  16. Ponka, P. and H. M. Schulman. 1985. Regulation of heme synthesis in erythroid cells: hemin inhibits transferrin iron utilization but not protoporphyrin synthesis. Blood 65:850-857
  17. Roof, M. D. and D. C. Mahan. 1982. Effect of Carbadox and various dietary copper levels for weanling swine. J. Anim. Sci. 55:1109-1117 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1982.5551109x
  18. Doring, F., J. Walter, J. Will, M. Focking, M. Boll, S. Amasheh, W. Clauss and H. Daniel. 1998. Delta-aminolevulinic Acid Transport by Intestinal and Renal Peptide Transporters and Its Physiological and Clinical Implications. J. Clin. Invest. 101:2761-2767 https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI1909

Cited by

  1. Effects of δ-aminolevulinic acid and vitamin C supplementation on iron status, production performance, blood characteristics and egg quality of laying hens vol.95, pp.4, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2010.01067.x
  2. L. residues on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters and immune function in weaned piglets vol.86, pp.8, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12361
  3. Effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Gene Expression, Immunity, and ATP Levels in Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei pp.1436-2236, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-018-9852-2

Acknowledgement

Supported by : EasyBio Systems, Inc.