Effects of Diet and Time on Feed on Fatty Acid Composition in Muscle of Charolais Steers

사료급원과 급여기간이 Charolais 거세우 근내 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향

  • 최낙진 (한우시험장) ;
  • 강수원 (한우시험장) ;
  • 권응기 (한우시험장) ;
  • 조원모 (한우시험장) ;
  • 전병수 (한우시험장) ;
  • 박병기 (축산연구소)
  • Published : 2006.12.31


This study investigated the effects of feeding Charolais steers on diets rich in either n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and time on feed (TOF) on muscle fatty acid composition and content. Twenty eight steers were fed on ad libitum forage and one of two concentrates varying in the source of fat; soya (high in C18:2 n-6) or whole linseed (high in C18:3 n-3) for either 60 or 90 days in IGER (Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, UK). The concentrates were fed at approximately 0.73 of total DM intake. TOF influenced carcass weight, conformation and fatness scores, which were higher at 90 v. 60 days (P<0.05). Diet did not affect total fatty acid content of neutral lipid in m. longissimus thoracis but feeding linseed increased total phospholipid fatty acid by approx- imately 15%(P<0.05). Linseed increased the amount and proportion of C18:3 n-3 (P<0.001) and the proportion of CLA (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid), while soya increased the content (P<0.05) and proportion (P<0.001) of C18:2 n-6 in muscle neutral lipid. In muscle phospholipid, linseed significantly increased the amount of CLA, C18:3 n-3 and its longer chain derivatives as well as C14:0, C16:0, C18:0. C18:1 trans and C18:2 n-6. The amount and proportion of C18:2 n-6 and its longer chain C20 derivatives were higher on feeding soya. TOF (90 v. 60 day) increased the content of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, CLA, C18:1 n-9, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 in muscle neutral lipid. The P:S was not affected by diet or TOF. The ratio of C18:2 n-6 : C18:3 n-3 and sum of n-6 : n-3 fatty acids were higher in muscle from animals fed on linseed v. soya (P<0.001). The study indicates that the PUFA composition of beef muscle may be significantly modified by feeding contrasting dietary lipids, soya vs. linseed. Feeding linseed produced a better balance of muscle fatty acids, more in line with current nutritional recommendations with a lower C18:2 n-6:C18:3 n-3 ratio associated with higher muscle content of C18:3 n-3 and C20:5 n-3 and CLA and lower C20:4 n-6.


Beef;Lipids;Polyunsaturated fatty acids


  1. Chalupa, W., Rickabaugh, B., Kronfeld, D. S. and Sklan, D. 1984. Rumen fermentation in vitro as influenced by long chain fatty acids. Journal of Dairy Science 67:1439-1444
  2. Choi, N. J., Enser, M., Wood, J. D. and Scollan, N. D. 2000. Effect of breed on the deposition in beef muscle and adipose tissue of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Animal Science 71: 509-519
  3. Clinquart, A., Istasse, L., Dufrasne, I., Mayombo, A., van Eenaeme, C. and Bienfait, J. M. 1991. Effects on animal performance and fat composition of two fat concentrates in diets for growing- fattening bulls. Animal Production 53:315-320
  4. Department of Health. 1994. Report on health and social subjects No. 46. Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease. HMSO, London
  5. Duckett, S. K., Wagner, D. G., Yates, L. D., Dolezal, H. G. and May, S. G. 1993. Effects of time on feed on beef nutrient composition. Journal of Animal Science 71:2079-2088
  6. Enser, M., Hallett, K. G., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J., Wood, J. D. and Harrington, G. 1998. Fatty acid content and composition of UK beef and lamb muscle in relation to production system and implications for human nutrition. Meat Science 49:329-341
  7. Enser, M., Scollan, N. D., Choi, N. J., Kurt, E., Hallett, K. and Wood, J. D. 1999. Effect of dietary lipid on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in beef muscle. Animal Science. 69:143-146
  8. Hansen, H. S. 1994. New biological clinical roles for the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Nutrition Reviews 52:162-167
  9. Hecker, A. L., Cramer, D. A. and Hougham, D. F. 1975. Compositional and metabolic growth effects in the bovine muscle, subcutaneous and serum total fatty acids. Journal of Food Science 40:144-149
  10. Jenkins, T. C. 1993. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. Journal of Dairy Science 76:3851-3863
  11. Jiang, J., Bjöerck, L., Fonden, R. and Emanuelson, M. 1996. Occurrence of conjgated cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid in bovine milk: effects of feed and dietary regimen. Journal of Dairy Science. 79:438-445
  12. Kempster, A. J., Cook, G. L. and Grantley-Smith, M. 1986. National estimates of the body composition of British cattle, sheep and pigs with special reference to trends in fatness. A review. Meat Science 17:107-138
  13. Lawes Agricultural Trust. 1990. GENSTAT V mark 2.2. Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, UK
  14. Lawless, F., Murphy, J. J., Harrington, D., Devery, R. and Stanton, C. 1998. Elevation of conjugated cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoic acid in bovine milk because of dietary supplementation. Journal of Dairy Science. 81:3259-3267
  15. Link, B. A., Bray, R. W., Cassens, R. G. and Kauffman, R. G. 1970. Fatty acid composition of bovine skeletal muscle lipids during growth. Journal of Animal Science 30:726-731
  16. Rule, D. C., MacNeil, M. D. and Short, R. E. 1997. Influence of sire growth potential, time on feed and growing-inishing strategy on cholesterol and fatty acids of the ground carcass and longissimus muscle of beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 75:1525-1533
  17. Sackmann, J. R., Duckett, S. K., Gillis, M. H., Realini, C. E., Parks, A. H. and Eggelston, R. B. 2003. Effects of forage and sunflower oil levels on ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid formation in beef steers fed finishing diets. Journal of Animal Science. 81:3174-3181
  18. Scollan, N. D., Choi, N, J., Kurt, E., Fisher, A. V., Enser, M. and Wood, J. D. 2001a. Manipulating the fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue in beef cattle. British Journal of Nutrition 85:115-124
  19. Scollan, N. D., Choi, N, J., Maeng, W. J., Enser, M. and Wood, J. D. 2001b. Digestion of long chain fatty acids from different feed sources and their effect on the rumen function of steers. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, 136: 345-355
  20. Sinclair, A. J., Johnson, L., O'Dea, K. and Holman, R. T. 1994. Diets rich in lean beef increase arachidonic acid and long chain $\omega$-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids levels in plasma phospholipids. Lipids 29:337-343
  21. Solomon, R., Chase, L. E., Ben-hedalia, D. and Bauman, D. E. 2000. The effect of non-structural carbohydrate and addition of full fat extruded soybeans on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in the milk fat of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 83:1322-1329
  22. Van Nevel, C. J. and Demeyer, D. I. 1996a. Influence of pH on lipolysis and biohydrogenation of soybean oil by rumen contents in vitro. Reproduction Nutrition Development 36:53-63
  23. Westerling, D. B. and Hedrick, H. B. 1979. Fatty acid composition of bovine lipids as influenced by diet, sex and anatomical location and the relationship to sensory characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 48:1343-1348
  24. French, P., Stanto, C., Lawless, F., O'Ricordan, E. G., Monahan, F. J., Caffrey, P. J. and Moloney, A. P. 2000. Fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, of intramuscular fat from steers offered grazed, grass silage, or concentrate- based diets. Journal of Animal Science. 78:2849- 2855
  25. Madron, M. S., Peterson, D. G., Dwyer, D. A., Corl, B. A., Baumgard, L. H., Beermann, D. H. and Bauman, D. E. 2002. Effect of extruded full- fat soybeans on conjugated linoleic acid content of intramuscular, intermuscular, and subcutaneous fat in beef steers. Journal of Animal Science. 80:1135-1143
  26. Scollan, N. D., Enser, M., Gulati, S. K., Richardson, I. and Wood, J. D. 2003. Effects of including a ruminally protected lipid supplement in the diet on the fatty acid composition of beef muscle. British Journal of Nutrition. 90:709-716
  27. Robelin, J. 1986. Growth of adipose tissues in cattle; portioning between depots, chemical composition and cellularity. Review of Livestock Production Science 14:349-364
  28. Huerta-Leidenz, N. O., Cross, H. R., Savell, J. W., Lunt, D. K., Baker, J. F. and Smith, S. B. 1996. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue from male calves at different stages of growth. Journal of Animal Science 74:1256- 1264
  29. Marmer, W. N., Maxwell, R. J. and Williams, J. E. 1984. Effects of dietary regimen and tissue site on bovine fatty acid profiles. Journal of Animal Science 59:109-121
  30. Maczulak, A. E., Dehority, B. A. and Palmquist, D. L. 1981. Effects of long-chain fatty acids on growth of rumen bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 42:856-862
  31. Gillis, M. H., Duckett, S. K., Sackmann, J. S. and Keisler, D. H. 2003. Effect of rumen- protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or linoleic acid on leptin and CLA content of bovine adipose depots. Journal of Animal Science. 81 (suppl. 2):12 (Abstract)