DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Ad libitum and Restricted Milk Feeding on Growth Performance of Holstein Calves

제한 및 무제한 포유방법이 홀스타인 송아지의 성장능력에 미치는 영향

  • Khan, M. A. (National Livestock Research Institute, R.D.A) ;
  • ;
  • ;
  • ;
  • ;
  • ;
  • ;
  • ;
  • ;
  • 이현준 (축산연구소) ;
  • 이왕식 (축산연구소) ;
  • 기광석 (축산연구소) ;
  • 김현섭 (축산연구소) ;
  • 안병석 (축산연구소) ;
  • 박수봉 (축산연구소) ;
  • 홍중산 (서울대학교) ;
  • 최윤재 (서울대학교)
  • Published : 2006.12.31

Abstract

This study was conducted to estimate the maximum amount and time of milk consumption by Holstein calves during two months of pre- weaning period and to compare ad libitum milk feeding with conventional system for their effects on dry feed consumption, nutrient intake, growth performance and occurrence of diarrhea during the pre-weaning phase. Holstein calves (n=20) were alternatively fed colostrum at 10% of their body weight or ad libitum for the first three days (d) and then assigned either to conventional (n=10; calves were fed milk at 10% of their body weight from birth to weaning at d 60 of their age) or ad libitum milk feeding (n=10; calves were fed ad libitum milk from birth to weaning at d 60 of their age). Milk intake as a percent of body weight was increased in ad libitum fed calves from 13.59% at d 1 to 23.50% at d 30 of their age, thereafter it was gradually reduced. Ad libitum fed calves consumed daily 9.8kg milk compared with 4.3kg milk in restricted fed calves(p<0.05). Daily starter and mixed grass hay intake was gradually increased in both groups with the age however; the group differences were noted non-significant up to 40 d of age. Overall from birth to weaning conventionally fed calves ate 18.4, 20 and 18.9% more dry matter, crude protein and total digestible nutrients, respectively than ad libitum milk fed calves (p<0.05). Weight gain was 49, 18.4 and 26% higher in ad libitum milk fed calves than conventionally fed calves during the first month, the second month and from birth to weaning, respectively(p<0.05). Body weight was not significantly different between groups for the first 20 d of age. However, it was significantly higher for ad libitum milk fed calves at d 30, 40, 50, 60 (weaning) and 90 (post weaning) of their age(p<0.05). Similar body weights for both conventionally and ad libitum milk fed calves were observed for the post weaning period at 120, 150 and 180 d of age. Feed efficiency was significantly higher for conventionally fed calves than ad libitum milk fed calves(p<0.05). No sign of diarrhea, fever or cough was observed in calves fed either conventionally or ad libitum milk during the experimental period. In conclusion, calves fed more milk remained healthy and gained higher weight before weaning and maintained this advantage at least up to 90 d of their age.

Keywords

Holstein calf;Weaning;Colostrum;Milk feeding

References

  1. Albright, L. L. and Arave, C. W. 1997. The Behaviour of Cattle. CAB International, Wallingford, UK
  2. AOAC. 1999. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA
  3. Appleby, M. C., Weary, D. M. and Chua, B. 2001. Performance and feeding behaviour of calves on ad libitum milk from artificial teats. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 74:191-201 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(01)00171-X
  4. Boe, K. and Havrevoll, O. 1993. Cold housing and computer-controlled milk feeding for dairy calves: behaviour and performance. Anim. Prod. 57:183-191 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100006784
  5. Fiems, L. O., Boucque, Ch. V., Cottyn, B. G. and Buysse, F. X. 1982. Effect of feeding techniques and age at weaning on the performances of bucket-fed and suckling reared calves. In: Signoret, J.P. (Ed.), Welfare and Husbandry of Calves, Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science. 19:149-167
  6. Flower, F. and Weary, D. M. 2001. Effects of early separation on the dairy cow and calf: 2. Separation at 1 day and 2 weeks after birth. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 70:275-284 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(00)00164-7
  7. Hammell, K. L., Metz, J. H. M. and Mekking, P. 1988. Sucking behaviour of dairy calves fed milk ad libitum by bucket or teat. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 20:275-285 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(88)90052-4
  8. Hammon, H. M., Schiessler, G., Nussbaum, A. and Blum, J. W. 2002. Feed intake patterns, growth performance, and metabolic and endocrine traits in calves fed unlimited amounts of colostrum and milk by automate, starting in the neonatal period. J. Dairy Sci. 85:3352-3362 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74423-8
  9. Jasper, J. and Weary, D. M. 2002. Effects of ad libitum milk intake on dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 85:3054-3058 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74391-9
  10. Khalili, H., Crosse, S. and Varvikko, T. 1992. The performance of crossbred dairy calves given different levels of whole milk and weaned at different ages. Anim. Prod. 54:191-195 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100036795
  11. Larson, L. L., Owen,, F. G., Albright, J. L., Appleman, R. D., Lamb, R. C. and Muller, L. D. 1977. Guidelines toward more uniformity in measuring and reporting calf experimental data. J. Dairy Sci. 60:989-991 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(77)83975-1
  12. Leaver, J. D. and Yarrow, N. H. 1972. Rearing of dairy cattle. 2. Weaning calves according to their concentrate intake. Anim. Prod. 14:161-165 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100010837
  13. Metz, J. 1987. Productivity aspects of keeping dairy cow and calf together in the post-partum period. Livest. Prod. Sci. 16:385-394 https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(87)90007-8
  14. National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC
  15. Nocek, J. E. and Braund, D. G. 1986. Perfor- mance, health and postweaning growth on calves fed cold, acidified milk replacer ad libitum. J. Dairy Sci. 69:1871-1883 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80613-0
  16. SAS User's Guide: Statistics, Version 6.11 Edition. 1994. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC
  17. Sjersen, K., Purup, S., Vestergaard, M. and Foldager, J. 2000. High body weight gain and reduced bovine mammary growth: physiological basis and implications for milk yield. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 19:93-104 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0739-7240(00)00070-9
  18. Thickett, W. S., Cuthbert, N. H., Brigstocke, T. D. A., Lindeman, M. A. and Wilson, P. N. 1983. A note on the performance and management of calves reared on cold acidified milk replacer ad libitum. Anim. Prod. 36:147-150 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100040058
  19. Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, H. B. and Lewis, B. A. 1991. Methods of dietary fiber, NDF and non- starch polysaccharides in relation to animal material. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  20. de Passillé, A. M. B., Metz, J. H. M. and Wiepkema, P. R. 1992. Does drinking milk stimulate sucking in young calves? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 34:23-36 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(05)80054-1
  21. Cady, R. A. and Smith, T. R. 1996. Economics of heifer raising programs. Proc. Calves Heifers and Dairy Profitability Nat. Con., Harrisburg, PA. NRAES Publ. 74, Ithaca, NY
  22. Rushen, J. and de Passillé, A. M. 1995. The motivation of nonnutritive sucking in calves, Bos taurus. Anim. Behav. 49:1503-1510 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-3472(95)90071-3
  23. Riordan, T. F. and Everitt, G. C. 1972. Effects of pre-weaning nutrition on subsequent growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and carcass composition of identical twin steers. Proc. N.Z. Soc. Anim. Prod. 32:26-38