Probiotic Properties of the Candida kefyr Isolated from Kefir

Kefir에서 분리한 Candida kefyr의 생균제를 위한 특성

  • 유숙진 (국립한경대학교 낙농과학과) ;
  • 조진국 (국립한경대학교 낙농과학과) ;
  • 하철규 (한양대학교 생화학 및 분자생물학과) ;
  • 김창현 (국립한경대학교 동물생명자원학과) ;
  • 허강칠 (국립한경대학교 낙농과학과)
  • Published : 2006.04.30


To search direct fed microbials, we isolated a Candida sp. from kefir grain. The isolated Candida sp. strain showed 99.8% of identity to the species of Candida kefyr by API 20C kit. Enzyme activity of Candida kefyr was higher in amylase (0.33±1.12μmol/min/mg) than that in phytase (0.052±0.98μmol/ min/mg) cellulase(0.051±μmol/min/mg) and xylanase (0.011±0.98mol/min/mg). The maximum numbers of Candida kefyr in growth curve were reached at 30 h fermentation. Candida kefyr showed high resistances to acidic environment, which was not perfectly extincted even at pH 2.0. And it showed high tolerance to bile salt which had almost 97.2% of survival in the presence of 1.0% bile salt.Especially, Candida kefyr showed high heat stability which remained 10% of initial microorganisms at 60℃. Candida kefyr was not generally inhibited by most of 11 antibiotic agent which contained tetracycline groups. These results suggest that the isolated Candida kefyr has a useful properties as probiotics.


Kefir;Candida kefyr;Bile salt;Probiotics


  1. Ham. J. S.. Jeong. J. Y.. Jeong. S. G.. Ahn. J. N.. Aim. Y. Y.. Kim. S. K. and Kim. H. U. 1999. Effects of feeding with Lactobacillus plaJJtarull1 and Candida kefiT Isolated from Mongolian Koumiss on the growth and fecal microflora of broilers. Korean J. Dairy Sci. 21(3):241-246
  2. Harris. B. and Webb. D. W. 1990. The effect of feeding a concentrated yeast culturc product to lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 73:266-272
  3. Itoh. K. 1999. Lactic acid bactcria and intestinal microflora. The I Ith International Symposium on Lactic Acid Bacteria and Human Health. Seoul. Korea. pp. 23-25
  4. Otic's. S. and Cagindi. O. 2003. Keir: A probiotic dairy-composition. nutritional and therapeutic aspects. Pakistan J. nutrition. 2(2):54-59
  5. Shimizu. M. 1992. Purification and characterization of phytase from BacillllS subtilis(natto) N-77. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 56: 1266-1273
  6. 박소영, 고영태, 정후길, 양진오, 정현서, 김영배, 지근억. 1996. 유산균들의 콜레스테롤 저하성, 내산성, 내담즙산성, 항생제 내성 비교. Kor. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24(3):304-310
  7. Shiomi. M. K.. Sakai. M., Murofushi, M. and Aibara. K. 1982. Antitumor activity in mice of orally administered polysaccharide from kefir grain. Jpn J. Med. Sci. BioI. 35(2):75-80
  8. Stark B. A. and Wilkinson. .J. M. 1989. Probiotics: Theory and Applications. Chalcombe Publications Berks England
  9. Toba. T. 1987. Symposium Reports on Advance of Dairy Science and Technology in Japan. Jpn. J. Dairy and Food Science. 36(6):A235-A243
  10. Khasin. A.. Alchanati. I. and Shoham. Y. 1993. Purification and characterization of a thermostable xylanase from BacillllS stearothermophilus T-6. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 1725-1730
  11. Kobayashi. Y.. Tohyaman, K. and Terashima, T. 1974. Studies on biological characteristics of Lactobacillus. II. Tolereranee of the multiple antibiotic resistance-strain. L. casei PSR3002. to artificial digcstive fluids. Japan. J. Mierobiol. 29:691-697
  12. Koroleva. N. S. 1988. Technology of kefir and kumys. Internation Dairy Federation Bulletin. 227: 96-99
  13. Kroger, M. and Kurmann, J. A. 1989. Fermented milks-past. present and future. Food TechnoI. 43: 92-99
  14. Lyons. T. P. and Jacques. K. A. 2000. Biotechnology in the feed industry. Proceedings of Alltech's 16th Annual Symposium. Nottingham University Press
  15. Martin. S. A. and Nisbct. D. J. 1992. Effect of Direct fed micTobials on rumen microbial fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 75: 1736-1744
  16. 박형룡, 한인규, 허기남. 1994. Yeast cultur의 첨가가 육계의 생산성과 장내 Yeast colony에 미치는 영향. 한국영양사료학회지. 18:346-352
  17. APHA. 1985. Standard methods for the examination of dairy products, 15th ed. American Public Health Associaton, Washington. D. C.
  18. Bottazzi. V. 1980. A note on scanning electron microscopy of icroorganisms associated with the kefir granule. J. Applied Bacteriol. 48:265-268
  19. Fuller. R. 1989. Probiotics in man and animals. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 66(5):365-378
  20. Bradford. M. M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72:248-254
  21. Gilliland, S. E. 1979. Benifical interrelationships between certain microorganisms and humans: candidate microorganisms for use as dietary adjuncts. J. Food Prot. 42:164-167
  22. Gilliand, S. E. and Speck, M. L. 1977. Deconjugation of bile acids by intestinal lactobacilli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:15-18.
  23. Kandler. O. and Kunathm. P. 1983. Lactobacillus kefyr sp. nov.. A component of the mieroflora of kefyr. Systematic and Applicd Microbiology. 4: 286-294

Cited by

  1. Biotechnological innovations in kefir production: a review vol.110, pp.3, 2008,