A Study of Facial Asymmetry and Masticatory Pattern Using Panorama and PA Cephalograph.

파노라마 및 정모방사선사진을 이용한 저작형태에 따른 안면비대칭에 관한 연구

  • Lee, You-Mee (Department of Oral medicine, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University) ;
  • Kim, Jae-Chang (Department of Oral medicine, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University)
  • 이유미 (원광대학교 치과 대학 구강내과학 교실) ;
  • 김재창 (원광대학교 치과 대학 구강내과학 교실)
  • Published : 2006.06.30


Recent studies have shown that there are significant increasing facial asymmetry using 3-dimensional imaging. This study use panorama view and PA cephalograph that were low in price and make good use in dentistry. For this study, 35 persons without remarkable malocclusion were selected, they had panorama view and PA cephalograph, make written questionnaire about facial asymmetry cognition and masticatory pattern. Data obtained were statistically processed by the SPSS Windows program and the results of this study were as follows: 1. There were significant difference between Rt and Lt. on Co-Go, Co-Ag, Co-Go-Ag, Go-Me- Ag. 2. In panorama view, There were significant difference between Rt. and Lt Co-Ag that chewing right side, Rt. and Lt. Co-Go that chewing left side, 3. In PA cephalograph view, There were significant difference in Rt. and Lt. Cg-Go, Rt. and Lt. Co-Ag that chewing right side, Rt. and Lt. Cg-Go that chewing left side 4. There were significant difference in Rt. and Lt. Co-Go, CO-si-CR, go-ME-Ag that cogniting facial asymmetry.


Facial asymmetry;Vertical measurements of mandible;Masticatory side


  1. Melnik AK. A cephalometric study of mandibular asymmetry in a longitudinally followed sample of growing children. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 1992; 4:355-366
  2. Epker BN, Fish IC. Dentofacial Deformities: Integrated orthodontic and surgical correction. 2nd ed., St. Louis, 1986, Mosby Co., Vol. 3, ch 21
  3. Kambylafkas P, Murdock E, Gilda E, Tallents RH, Kyrkanides S. Validity of Panoramic Radiographs for Measuring Mandibular Asymmetry. The Angle Orthod 2006;76(3):388-393
  4. Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Poggio CE, Trrtaglia G. Distance from symmetry: a three-dimensional evaluation of facial asymmetry. J Oral Maxillofac surg 1994;52:1126-1132 https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-2391(94)90528-2
  5. Fuhmann RA, Schnappauf A, Diedrich PR. Threedimensional imaging of craniomaxillofacial structures with standard personal computer. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 1995;24:260-263 https://doi.org/10.1259/dmfr.24.4.9161172
  6. 대한구강악안면방사선학회. 구강악안면방사선학. 제2판, 서울, 1996, 이우문화사, pp.142-143
  7. 김왕식, 이기헌, 황현식. 안면비대칭자의 3차원 전산단층사진 분석에서 경.연조직간 비대칭 정도 차이. 대치교정지 2005;35(3):163-173
  8. 황현식, 은춘선, 황정현, 임회정. 정모두부방사선사진에서 하악골 우각부 영상확대 및 이의 보정에 관한 3차원 CT영상 연구. 대치교정지 2005;35(4):251-261
  9. 정지웅, 김병국, 김재형. 파노라마 방사선 사진을 이용한 측두하악관절장애 환자의 하악 과두와 하악지 비대칭에 관한 연구. 대한구강내과학회지 2005;30(2): 239-246
  10. 안정순, 이기헌, 황현식. 안면비대칭 진단을 위한 하악골 3차원영상 계측기준치에 관한 연구. 대치교정지 2005;35(2):91-105
  11. 최지은, 안형준, 최종훈, 김종열. 측두하악관절내장증 환자의 악안면비대칭과 편측저작에 관한 연구. 대한구강내과학회지 2002;27(1):49-62
  12. 이설미. 방사선사진과 안모사진을 이용한 하악 비대칭의 평가. 대한구강악안면방사선학회지 2001;31: 199-204
  13. 홍호철, 박준상, 고명연. 측두하악장애 환자의 안면대칭성에 관한 연구. 대한구강내과학회지 2002;27(1):129-145
  14. Tronje G, Welander U, McDavid WD, Morris CR. Image distortion in rotational panoramic radiography. IV. Object morphology; outer contours. Acta Radiol Diagn(Stockholm) 1981;22:689-696
  15. Bingshuang Z, Kim TW, Choi SC. Morphologic and positional assessment of temporomandibular joint disk in facial asymmetric patients by magnetic resonance imaging. Korean J Orthod 2005;35(5): 398-407
  16. Dibbets JM, Crlson DS. Implications of temporomandibular disorders for facial growth and orthodontics treatment. Semin Ortho 1994;64:447-454
  17. Piedra I. The Levandoski Panoramic Analysis in the diagnosis of facial and dental asymmetries. J Clin Pediatr Dent 1995;20:15-21
  18. Ramstad T, Hensten-Pettersen O, Mohn E, Ibrahim SI. A methodological study of errors in vertical measurements of edentulous ridge height on orthopantomographic radiograms. J Oral Rehabil 1978;5:403-41 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.1978.tb01259.x
  19. 안정순, 황현식. 안면비대칭에 대한 주관적 인지도와 정모두부방사선사진 분석치의 연관성. 대치교정지 2001;31(5):489-498
  20. Peterson. Contemporary oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2nd Ed., St Louis, 1993, Mosby Co., pp.613-656
  21. Vannier MW, Marsh JL, Warren JO. Three dimensional CT reconstruction images for craniofacial surgical planning and evaluation. Radiology 1984;150:179-184 https://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.150.1.6689758
  22. Larheim TA, Svanaes DB. Reproducibility of rotaional panoramic radiography: mandibular linear dimensions and angles. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1986;90:45-51 https://doi.org/10.1016/0889-5406(86)90026-0
  23. Bishara SE, Burkey PS, Kharouf JG. Dental and facial asymmetries: a review. Angle orthod 1994;64:89-98
  24. Ferraio VF, Sforza C, Schmitz JH, Santoro F. Three-dimensional facial morphometric assessment of soft tissue changes after orthognathic surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1999;88:549-568 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1079-2104(99)70084-3
  25. 백형선, 박영철, 손병화, 유영규. 최신두부방사선계측분 석화. 서울, 1999, 지성출판사, pp.153-174
  26. 백형선, 유형석, 이기주. 한국인 정상 교합자의 정모 두부 방사선 사진을 이용한 안모비율에 관한 연구. 대치교정지 1997;27(4):643-659
  27. 정미라, 손우성. 저작습관에 따른 교합력과 안면골격형태의 비교연구. 대치교정지, 1995;25(3):311-321
  28. 이택우, 이기수. 교합력과 두개안면 형태의 상관관계에 대한 연구. 대치교정지 1991;21:185-195
  29. Arnold TG, Anderson GC, Liljemark WF. Cephalometric norms for craniofacial asymmetry using submental-vertical radiographs, Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1994;106:250-256 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-5406(94)70044-3
  30. Ferraio VF, Sforza C, Miani A, Tartaglia G. Craniofacial morphometry by photographic evaluations. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1993;103:327-337 https://doi.org/10.1016/0889-5406(93)70013-E