Effects of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Waste Silage and Polyethylene Glycol on Ruminal Fermentation and Blood Components in Cattle

  • Nishida, T. (Department of Animal Feeding and Management, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science) ;
  • Eruden, B. (Department of Animal Feeding and Management, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science) ;
  • Hosoda, K. (Department of Animal Feeding and Management, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science) ;
  • Matsuyama, H. (Department of Animal Feeding and Management, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science) ;
  • Nakagawa, K. (Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University) ;
  • Miyazawa, T. (Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University) ;
  • Shioya, S. (Department of Animal Feeding and Management, National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science)
  • Received : 2005.08.12
  • Accepted : 2006.06.15
  • Published : 2005.12.01


The effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) waste silage and supplemental polyethylene glycol (PEG) on rumen fermentation and blood components were studied in cattle. Six Holstein steers were fed three diets in a 3${\times}$3 Latin square design, replicated twice. One diet was a control with no added silage, and the other two diets were supplemented (20% of the dry matter) with green tea waste silage either with (PEG) or without PEG (tea). Most of the fermentation parameters including major volatile fatty acids (VFA) were not affected by the diet treatments. The concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the PEG group and urea nitrogen in the tea and PEG groups were greater than those in the control before morning feeding. The plasma 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid equivalent concentration was not different before morning feeding, but 3 h after morning feeding, its concentrations in both the tea and PEG groups were higher than in the control. Although the concentration of plasma vitamin A in the animals was not affected by feeding green tea waste silage, the concentrations of plasma vitamin E were significantly higher in the tea and PEG groups than in the control, both before and 3 h after morning feeding. The results from the present study suggest that feeding diets containing 20% of the dietary dry matter as green tea waste silage to Holstein steers has no negative impact on their ruminal fermentation, and increases their plasma antioxidative activity and concentration of vitamin E.


Green Tea Waste;Ruminal Fermentation;Blood Components


  1. Agricultural, Forestry, and Fisheries Research Council Secretariat. 1995. Japanese Feeding Standard for Beef Cattle. Central Association of Livestock Industry, Tokyo, Japan
  2. Allison, R. D. and R. A. Laven. 2000. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on the health and fertility of dairy cows: a review. Vet. Rec. 147:703-708
  3. Cai, Y., Y. Fujita, C. Xu, M. Ogawa, T. Sato and N. Masuda. 2003. Mixed silage preparation of green tea grounds and corn and its fermentation quality. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho. 74:203-211 (in Japanese)
  4. Chou, C. C., L. L. Lin and K. T. Chung. 1999. Antimicrobial activity of tea as affected by the degree of fermentation and manufacturing season. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 48:125-130
  5. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. 1988. Consortium, Association Headquarters, 1111 N. Dunlap Avenue, Savoy, IL 61874
  6. Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2004b. Effects of tea leaf waste of green tea , oolong tea, and black tea addition on sudangrass silage quality and in vitro gas production. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84:721-727
  7. Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2004c. Feeding value to goats of whole-crop oat ensiled with green tea waste. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 113:71-81
  8. Kono, S., K. Shinchi, N. Ikeda, F. Yanai and K. Imanishi. 1992. Green tea consumption and serum lipid profiles: a crosssectional study in northern Kyushu, Japan. Prev. Med. 21:526-531
  9. Miller, N. J., C. Rice-Evans, M. J. Davies, V. Gopinathan and A. Milner. 1993b. A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clin. Sci. (London) 84:407-412
  10. Nijveldt, R. J., E. van Nood, D. E. C. van Hoorn, P. G. Boelens, K. van Norren and P. A. M. van Leeuwen. 2001. Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 74:418-425
  11. Silanikove, N., N. Gilboa, I. Nir, A. Perevolotsky and Z. Nitsan. 1996a. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Quercus calliprinos, Pistacia lentiscus, caratonia siliqua) by sheep. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:199-205
  12. Weatherburn, M. W. 1967. Phenol-hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia. Anal. Chem. 39:971-974
  13. Wilson, P. W., R. D. Abbott and W. P. Castelli. 1988. High density lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality. The Framingham Heart Study. Arteriosclerosis. 8:737-741
  14. Kondo, M., M. Nakano, A. Kaneko, H. Agata, K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2004d. Ensiled green tea waste as partial replacement for soybean meal and alfalfa hay in lactating cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:960-966
  15. Silanikove, N., D. Shinder, N. Gilboa, M. Eyal and Z. Nitsan. 1996b. Binding of poly (ethylene glycol) to samples of forage plants as an assay of tannins and their negative effects on ruminal degradation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:3230-3234
  16. Barnouin, J. and M. Chassagne. 1998. Factors associated with clinical mastitis incidence in French dairy herds during late gestation and early lactation. Vet. Res. 29:159-171
  17. Nakagawa, K., M. Ninomiya, T. Okubo, N. Aoi, L. R. Juneja, M. Kim, K. Yamanaka and T. Miyazawa. 1999. Tea catechin supplementation increases antioxidant capacity and prevents phospholipid hydroperoxidation in plasma of humans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:3967-3973
  18. Bauchart, D. 1993. Lipid absorption and transport in ruminants. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3864-3881
  19. Bernabucci, U., B. Ronchi, N. Lacetera and A. Nardone. 2002. Markers of oxidative status in plasma and erythrocytes of transition dairy cows during hot season. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2173- 2179
  20. Kondo, M., K. Kita, N. Nishino and H. Yokota. 2004a. Enhanced lactic acid fermentation of silage by the addition of green tea waste. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84:728-734
  21. Van het Hof, K. H., S. A. Wiseman, C. S. Yang and L. B. Tijburg. 1999. Plasma and lipoprotein levels of tea catechins following repeated tea consumption. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 220:203- 209
  22. Eruden, B., T. Nishida, K. Hosoda, S. Shioya and Y. Cai. 2003. Effects of green tea grounds silage on digestibility, rumen fermentation and blood components in lactating dairy cows. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho. 74:483-490 (in Japanese)
  23. Silanikove, N., Z. Nitsan and A. Perevolotsky. 1994. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Ceratonia siliqua) by sheep. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:2844-2847
  24. Sung, H., J. Nah, S. Chun, H. Park, S. E. Yang and W. K. Min. 2000. In vivo antioxidant effect of green tea. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:527-529
  25. Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2006. Evaluation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of green tea waste ensiled with byproducts mixture for ruminants. Asian- Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:533-540
  26. Xu, C., Y. Cai, T. Kida, M. Matsuo, H. Kawamoto and M. Murai. 2004. Silage preparation of total mixed ration with green tea grounds and its fermentation quality and nutritive value. Grassl. Sci. 50:40-46 (in Japanese)
  27. Yamamoto, T., L. R. Juneja, D.-C. Chu and M. Kim. 1997. Chemistry and applications of green tea. CRC Press, Florida, USA
  28. Cai, Y., N. Masuda, Y. Fujita, H. Kawamoto and S. Ando. 2001. Development of a new method for preparation and conservation of tea grounds silage. Anim. Sci. J. 72:J536-J541 (in Japanese)
  29. Benzie, I. F., Y. T. Szeto, J. J. Strain and B. Tomlinson. 1999 Consumption of green tea causes rapid increase in plasma antioxidant power in humans. Nutr. Cancer. 34:83-87
  30. Katoh, N. 2002. Relevance of apolipoproteins in the development of fatty liver and fatty liver-related peripartum diseases in dairy cows. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 64:293-307
  31. McKay, D. L. and J. B. Blumberg. 2002. The role of tea in human health: An update. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 21:1-13
  32. Yang, C. S., L. Chen, M. J. Lee, D. Balentine, M. C. Kuo and S. P. Schantz. 1998. Blood and urine levels of tea catechins after ingestion of different amounts of green tea by human volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 7:351-354
  33. Holcomb, C. S., H. H. VanHorn, H. H. Head, M. B. Hall and C. J. Wilcox. 2001. Effects of prepartum dry matter intake and forage percentage on postpartum performance of lactating dairy. J. Dairy Sci. 84:2051-2058
  34. Maron, D. J., G. P. Lu, N. S. Cai, Z. G. Wu, Y. H. Li, H. Chen, J. Q. Zhu, X. J. Jin, B. C. Wouters and J. Zhao. 2003. Cholesterollowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial. Arch. Intern. Med. 163:1448-1453
  35. Rice-Evans, C. and N. J. Miller. 1994. Total antioxidant status in plasma and body fluids. Methods Enzymol. 234:279-293
  36. Xu, C., Y. Cai, Y. Fujita, H. Kawamoto, T. Sato and N. Masuda. 2003. Chemical composition and nutritive value of tea grounds silage treated with lactic acid bacteria and acremonium cellulase. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho. 74:355-361 (in Japanese)
  37. Ishihara, N., D.-C. Chu, S. Akachi and L. R. Juneja. 2001. Improvement of intestinal microflora balance and prevention of digestive and respiratory organ diseases in calves by green tea extracts. Livest. Prod. Sci. 68:217-229
  38. Miyazawa, T. 2000. Absorption, metabolism and antioxidative effects of tea catechin in humans. Biofactors. 13:55-59
  39. Dufresne, C. J. and E. R. Farnworth. 2001. A review of latest research findings on the health promotion properties of tea. J. Nutr. Biochem. 12:404-421
  40. Miller, J. K., E. Brzezinska-Slebodzinska and F. C. Madsen. 1993a. Oxidative stress, antioxidants, and animal function. J. Dairy Sci. 76:2812-2823
  41. SAS User's Guide. Statistics, Version 6.03 Edition. 1988. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC
  42. Tokunaga, S., I. R. White, C. Frost, K. Tanaka, S. Kono, S. Tokudome, T. Akamatsu, T. Moriyama and H. Zakouji. 2002. Green tea consumption and serum lipids and lipoproteins in a population of healthy workers in Japan. Ann. Epidemiol. 12:157-165
  43. Eruden, B., T. Nishida, H. Matsuyama, K. Hosoda and S. Shioya. 2004. Nutritive value of green tea grounds silage and influence of polyethylene glycol on nitrogen metabolism in steers. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho. 75:559-566 (in Japanese)

Cited by

  1. Evaluation of green tea by-product and green tea plus probiotics on the growth performance, meat quality and immunity of growing?finishing pigs vol.52, pp.9, 2012,
  2. Performance and methane emissions in dairy cows fed oregano and green tea extracts as feed additives vol.101, pp.5, 2018,
  3. Utilization of tea grounds as feedstuff for ruminant vol.4, pp.1, 2013,