NSAID Activated Gene (NAG-1), a Modulator of Tumorigenesis

  • Eling, Thomas E. ;
  • Baek, Seung-Joon ;
  • Shim, Min-sub ;
  • Lee, Chang-Ho
  • Accepted : 2006.08.24
  • Published : 2006.11.30


The NSAID activated gene (NAG-1), a member of the TGF-$\beta$ superfamily, is involved in tumor progression and development. The over-expression of NAG-1 in cancer cells results in growth arrest and increase in apoptosis, suggesting that NAG-1 has anti-tumorigenic activity. This conclusion is further supported by results of experiments with transgenic mice that ubiquitously express human NAG-1. These transgenic mice are resistant to the development of intestinal tumors following treatment with azoxymethane or by introduction of a mutant APC gene. In contrast, other data suggest a pro-tumorigenic role for NAG-1, for example, high expression of NAG-1 is frequently observed in tumors. NAG-1 may be like other members of the TGF-$\beta$ superfamily, acting as a tumor suppressor in the early stages, but acting pro-tumorigenic at the later stages of tumor progression. The expression of NAG-1 can be increased by treatment with drugs and chemicals documented to prevent tumor formation and development. Most notable is the increase in NAG-1 expression by the inhibitors of cyclooxygenases that prevent human colorectal cancer development. The regulation of NAG-1 is complex, but these agents act through either p53 or EGR-1 related pathways. In addition, an increase in NAG-1 is observed in inhibition of the AKT/GSK-$3{\beta}$ pathway, suggesting NAG-1 alters cell survival. Thus, NAG-1 expression is regulated by tumor suppressor pathways and appears to modulate tumor progression.


Anti-tumorigenic;Cancer;Cox inhibitor;Min mice;NAG-1;Tumor suppressor


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