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Xylem Sap Flow Affected by Short-term Variation of Soil Moisture Regimes at Higher Growth Period in 'Fuji'/M.9 Apple Trees with Different Fruit Loads

착과량 수준 및 생육성기 토양수분 함량 변화에 따른 '후지'/M.9 품종의 수액이동 특성

  • Published : 2006.06.30

Abstract

This study was conducted for 10 days from 17 July to 26 July in 2005 to measure the amount of xylem sap flow under short-term variation of soil moisture regimes at -20 kPa, -50 kPa and -80 kPa in eight-year-old 'Fuji'/M.9 apple trees with different fruit loads. Fruit load was adjusted as three different treatments with standard (100%), 1/2 times (50%) and 2 times (200%) on the basis of optimum fruiting number per tree as the standard fruit load of Fuji cultivar. Trees with standard fruit load during the experimental period showed higher xylem sap flow at -50 kPa of soil moisture regimes than those of trees with 1/2 times and 2 times fruit load. Trees with 1/2 times and 2 times fruit load had similar patterns of the diurnal changes of xylem sap flow, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and maximum evapotranspiration (ETm). However, trees with 2 times fruit load at -50 kPa and -80 kPa of soil moisture regimes produced lower amount of xylem sap flow than ETm. Trees with standard fruit load produced $1.06{\sim}3.93$ L/tree more amount of xylem sap flow than ETm at all soil moisture regimes. But xylem sap flow of tees with 2 times fruit load had 21% lower at -50 kPa and $31{\sim}36%$ lower at -20 kPa and -80 kPa of soil moisture regimes, respectively than that of trees with standard fruit load. Shoot growth and leaf area were significantly the highest in trees with standard fruit load while those of trees with 2 times fruit load recorded significantly lowest. Leaf water potential of trees with standard fruit load was lower than that of trees with 1/2 times and 2 times fruit load. It indicated that tees with standard fruit load had higher water use for transpiration than other treatments and tees with 2 times fruit load received more stress for the transpiration process under low soil moisture regimes. Consequently, 'Fuji'/M.9 apple trees, the fruit load and soil moisture should be maintained optimum to increase xylem sap flow and transpiration during higher growth period.

Keywords

xylem sap;fruit load;leaf water potential;tree growth;Fuji;apple

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