Xylem Sap Flow Affected by Short-term Variation of Soil Moisture Regimes at Higher Growth Period in 'Fuji'/M.9 Apple Trees with Different Fruit Loads

착과량 수준 및 생육성기 토양수분 함량 변화에 따른 '후지'/M.9 품종의 수액이동 특성

  • Published : 2006.06.30


This study was conducted for 10 days from 17 July to 26 July in 2005 to measure the amount of xylem sap flow under short-term variation of soil moisture regimes at -20 kPa, -50 kPa and -80 kPa in eight-year-old 'Fuji'/M.9 apple trees with different fruit loads. Fruit load was adjusted as three different treatments with standard (100%), 1/2 times (50%) and 2 times (200%) on the basis of optimum fruiting number per tree as the standard fruit load of Fuji cultivar. Trees with standard fruit load during the experimental period showed higher xylem sap flow at -50 kPa of soil moisture regimes than those of trees with 1/2 times and 2 times fruit load. Trees with 1/2 times and 2 times fruit load had similar patterns of the diurnal changes of xylem sap flow, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and maximum evapotranspiration (ETm). However, trees with 2 times fruit load at -50 kPa and -80 kPa of soil moisture regimes produced lower amount of xylem sap flow than ETm. Trees with standard fruit load produced $1.06{\sim}3.93$ L/tree more amount of xylem sap flow than ETm at all soil moisture regimes. But xylem sap flow of tees with 2 times fruit load had 21% lower at -50 kPa and $31{\sim}36%$ lower at -20 kPa and -80 kPa of soil moisture regimes, respectively than that of trees with standard fruit load. Shoot growth and leaf area were significantly the highest in trees with standard fruit load while those of trees with 2 times fruit load recorded significantly lowest. Leaf water potential of trees with standard fruit load was lower than that of trees with 1/2 times and 2 times fruit load. It indicated that tees with standard fruit load had higher water use for transpiration than other treatments and tees with 2 times fruit load received more stress for the transpiration process under low soil moisture regimes. Consequently, 'Fuji'/M.9 apple trees, the fruit load and soil moisture should be maintained optimum to increase xylem sap flow and transpiration during higher growth period.


xylem sap;fruit load;leaf water potential;tree growth;Fuji;apple


  1. Chalmers, D. J., Mitchell, P. D., and Jerie, P. H. (1984) The physiology of growth of peach and pear tree using reduced irrigation, Acta Horticulturae 146, 143-149
  2. Erf, J. A. and Proctor, J. T. A. (1987) Changes in apple leaf water status and vegetative growth as influenced by crop load, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 122(4), 617-620
  3. Faust, M. (1989) Physiology of temperature zone fruit trees, John Willy and Sons, New York, USA, p.133-274
  4. Granier, A and Loustau, D. (1994) Measuring and modelling the transpiration of a maritime pine canopy from sap flow data, Agri. For. Meteorol. 71, 61-81
  5. Han, S. G. (2003) Physiological response of 'Hongro' apple. tree to environmental stress and fruit load, Ph. D. Thesis, Dept. Hort. Breed., Andong National University, Korea
  6. Koike, H. and Ono, T. (1998) Optimum crop load for Fuji apples in Japan, Compact Fruit Tree 31(1), 13-16
  7. Lenz, F. (1989) Effect of training on growth, yield, water consumption and nutrient uptake of densely planted apple trees, Acta Horticulturae 243, 195-208
  8. Li, F., Cohen, S., Naor, A, Shaozon, K., and Erez, A (2002) Studies of canopy structure and water use of apple trees on three rootstocks, Agric. Water Manage. 55, 1-14
  9. Nagler, P. L., Glenn, E. P., and Thompson, T. L. (2003) Comparison of transpiration rates among saltcedar, cottonwood and willow trees by sap flow and canopy temperature methods, Agric. For. Meteorol. 116, 73-89
  10. Palmer, J. W. (1992) Effects of varing crop load on photosynthesis, dry matter production and partitioning of 'Crispin' /M.27 apple tree. Tree Physiol. 11, 19-33
  11. Schechter, I., Proctor, J. T. A., Elfving, D. C. (1994) Carbon exchange rate and accumulation in limbs of fruiting and non fruiting apple trees, Seasonal and daily patterns of xylem sap transportation in 'Fuji' /M.9 apple trees, J. Amer. Soc. Hart. Sci. 119, 150-156
  12. Wibbe, M. L., Blanke, M. M., and Lens, F. (1993) Effect of fruiting on carbon budgets of apple tree canopies, Tree 8, 56-60
  13. Yoon, T. M. (1999) Xylem of xylem embolism on leaf water potential and photosynthesis of apple trees, J. Kor. Hart. Sci. 40(1), 51-55
  14. Yoon, T. M. (2000) Management for high-density apple orchards. Andong National University Agr. Res. Inst., Korea
  15. hang, H, Simmonds, L. P., Morison, J. I. L., and Payne, D. (1997) Estimation of transpiration by single trees: comparison of sap flow measurements with a combination equation, Agri. For. Meteorol 87, 155-169
  16. Park, J. G., Kim, S. K., Lee, J. Y., Kim, S. H, and Shin, Y. U. (2004) Seasonal and daily patterns of xylem sap transportation in 'Fuji' /M.9 apple trees, Kar. J. Hart. Sci. Technol. 22(3), 101-105
  17. Naor, A, Klein, I., Hupert, H., Grinblat, T., Peres, M., and Kaufman, A (1999) Water stress and crop level interactions in relation to nectarine yield, fruit size distribution, and water potentials, J. Amer. Soc. Hart. Sci. 124(2), 189-193
  18. Mills, T. M., Behboudian, M. H, and Clothier, B. E. (1997) The diurnal and seasonal water relations, and composition of 'Braeburn' apple fruit under reduced plant water status, Plant Sci. 126, 145-154
  19. Lee, D. K. and Lee, J. C. (1991) Studies on flooding tolerance and its physiological aspects in fruit tree, II. Physiological changes associated with flooding, J. Kor. Hart. Sci. 32(1), 97-101
  20. Hansen, P. (1971) The effect of fruiting upon transpiration and stomatal opening in apple leaves, Physiol. Plant. 25, 181-183
  21. Stewart, J B. (1988) Modelling surface conductance of pine forest, Agric. For. Meteorol. 43, 19-35
  22. Steinberg, S. L., McFarland, M. J., and Worthington, J. W. (1990) Comparison of trunk and branch sap flow with canopy transpiration in pecan, J. Exp. Bot. 41, 653-659