Dietary Risk Factors for Hypertension among Korean Adult Men

  • Park, Jin-Young (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, University of London) ;
  • Shim, Jae-Eun (Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University) ;
  • Paik, Hee-Young (Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University)
  • Published : 2006.12.31

Abstract

There have been many studies indicating increased salt intake is related to elevated blood pressure (BP). Hypertension and pre-hypertension are prevalent in Korea. A national survey showed that the Korean average daily salt consumption was 12.5g, which is more than twice the current recommendation in the UK or USA. This study was performed to understand which aspects of the Korean diet contributed to high salt intake and elevated BP in Korea. The subjects consisted of 1,110 Korean adult men aged 30 to 49 years who were selected from the data of 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey, a nationwide cross sectional survey. The relationship of BP with sodium and high sodium food intakes were analyzed. After categorizing subjects according to their BP, the socio-demographic information and food and nutrients intakes were analyzed. BP increased with a larger amounts of sodium intake and the trend was significant with diastolic BP. However, the trends of BP for sodium densities of the diet were not. People with hypertension significantly tended to be older, larger, and less educated than people with normal BP. And they consumed more foods from the fats, oils & sweets group and larger amounts of discretionary sodium than normal people. The current report advocates that public health intervention, which improves the awareness of the role of salt on elevated blood pressure for the public, should be implemented in Korea.

References

  1. Bingham SA(1991): Limitations of the various methods for collecting dietary intake data. Ann Nutr Metab 35(3): 117-127 https://doi.org/10.1159/000177635
  2. Eaton L(2004): Food agency launches campaign to reduce salt intake. BMJ 329(7467): 644
  3. Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vander Hoorn S, Murray CJL, and the Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group (2002): Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 360: 1347-1360 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11403-6
  4. Gregory J, Foster K, Tyler H, Wiseman M(1990): The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. HMSO, London
  5. He FJ, MacGregor GA(2004): Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(3): CD004937
  6. He FJ, MacGregor GA(2005): Blood pressure--importance of salt intake. Am J Hypertens 18(9 Pt 1): 1258-9 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.03.743
  7. He FJ, MacGregor GA(2005): Blood pressure--importance of salt intake. Am J Hypertens 18(9 Pt 1): author reply 1259- 1261 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.05.007
  8. Hooper L, Bartlett C, Davey SG, Ebrahim S(2004): Advice to reduce dietary salt for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: CD003656
  9. Joint WHO/FAO expert consultation(2002): Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. WHO, Geneva
  10. Jung N(2005): Killer in silence, hypertension, Weekly Chosun, www.weekly.chosun.com
  11. Jurgens G, Graudal NA(2004): Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterols, and triglyceride. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: CD004022
  12. Khaw K, Welch A, Luben R, O'Brien E, Wareham N, Day N (2004): Blood pressure and urinary sodium in men and women: the Norfolk Cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer(EPIC-Norfolk). Am J Clin Nutr 80: 1397-1403 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/80.5.1397
  13. Korean Federation for Environmental Movement(2005): Sodium contents in instant noodle, Ra Myeon. Korean Federation for Environmental Movement, Seoul
  14. Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare(MOHW)(2002): Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey Report. MOHW, Seoul
  15. Korean National Statistical Office(NSO)(2004): The Korean standard classification of diseases and causes of death. National Statistical Office, Seoul
  16. MacGregor GA, Sever PS(1996): Salt--overwhelming evidence but still no action: can a consensus be reached with the food industry? BMJ 312(7041): 1287-1289 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.312.7041.1287
  17. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute(NHLBI)(2003): Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The seventh report of the joint national committee, NHLBI
  18. Patterson HR(1984): Sources of error in recording the blood pressure of patients with hypertension in general practice. Br Med J(Clin Res Ed) 289(6459): 1661-1664 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.289.6459.1661
  19. Staessen JA, O'Brien ET, Thijs L, Fagard RH(2000): Modern approaches to blood pressure measurement. Occup Environ Med 57(8): 510-520 https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.57.8.510
  20. Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM(2001): Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension(DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 344(1): 3-10 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200101043440101
  21. World Health Organization(WHO)(2004): Global status report on alcohol 2004. WHO