Assessment of Anthropometry, Nutritional Compositions and Contribution of School Meals to the Daily Nutrient Requirements of Primary School Children from Rural Communities

  • Ijarotimi O. Steve (Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology) ;
  • Omotayo S. Amos (Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology)
  • Published : 2006.12.31

Abstract

The study aims to evaluate the nutritional status and influence of school meal intakes on RDA of primary school children in Akure community, Ondo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 728 primary school children aged between 6 and 15 years. Data were collected using interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaires. The questionnaires collect information on demographic characteristics and home dietary intake of the subjects. The heights and weights of the children were measured using a standard procedure and height-far-age and weight-far-height z-score were determined. The children's school meal intakes were weighed for 4 days and samples were collected for chemical analysis. The results showed that 37.8% of the children were not wasted, 35.7% mildly wasted, 18.7% moderately wasted and 7.8% severely wasted. Also, 57.8% were not stunted, 29.3% mildly stunted, 11.0% moderately stunted and 1.9% were severely stunted. The subjects' home dietary intakes showed that 73.6% ate starchy food only, 19.9% ate protein based food, while 11.6% and 11.5% consumed fruits/vegetables and snacks to complement home meals respectively. The chemical composition of school meal was energy 379 - 413kcal, moisture content 5.9 -7.3g, carbohydrate 56.5 - 69.4g, fat 4.6 - 12.7g, crude fiber 0.1 - 2.4g, ash content 3.6 - 8.5g and protein 14.9 - 22.3g. The mineral contents were calcium 45.9 - 59.2mg, sodium 5004 - 59.6mg, zinc 2.3 - 3.1mg, magnesium 55.0 - 61.6mg, potassium 55.3 - 69.3mg, copper 0.2 - 0.3 mg, while others 1.3 - 1.9mg, 243 - 659mg and 831 - 9,510mg were iron, phosphorous and vitamin-A respectively. The contribution of school meals to subjects' RDA was within 2.9% and 1540%. In summary, school meal intake contributed positively to the RDA and nutritional status of the school children.

References

  1. Adekunle L(2005): The effect of family structure on a sample of malnourished urban Nigerian children. Food Nutrition Bulletin 26(2): 230-233 https://doi.org/10.1177/156482650502600207
  2. Akinadewo O(1981): The importance of health education on child feeding and development. Official Report of the First International All Africa Conference on Health Education. Lagos, pp.406- 411, Nigeria: Federal Health Education Division
  3. AOAC(1995): Official Methods of Analysis 16th edition, Arlington V.A association of official analytical chemist
  4. Basch C, Shea S, Arliss R, Contento I, Rips J, Gutin B(1990): Validation of mothers' reports of dietary intake by four to seven- year old children. Am J Public Health 81: 1314
  5. Bhan MK, Sommerfelt H, Strand T(2001): Micro-nutrient deficiency in children. British J Nutrition 85(s2): 199-203 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2001315
  6. Chang SM, Walker SP, Grantham-McGregor S, Powell CA(2002): Early child stunting and later behaviour and school achievement. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43(6): 775-783 https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00088
  7. Carlo U, Kevin P(2001): Drug-based helminth control in western pacific countries: a general perspective. Tropical Medicine International Health 6(11): 935 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3156.2001.00820.x
  8. Cole AH, Taiwo OO, Nwagbara NI, Cole CE(1997): Energy Intakes, anthropometry and body composition of Nigerian adolescent girls: a case study of an institutionalized secondary school in Ibadan. British J Nutrition 77: 497-509 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19970052
  9. Cole AH, Ogungbe RF(1987): Food Intake and energy expenditure of Nigerian female students. British J Nutrition 57: 309-318 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19870039
  10. FAO/WHO, Reports(1992): International Conference on Nutrition and Development, pp.3-36, A global assessment, Rome
  11. FAO/WHO(1992): Nutrition and development - A global assessment, p25, International Conference on Nutrition, Rome
  12. Gibbson R(1990): Principles of Nutritional assessment, Oxford University press, Oxford
  13. GOK/UNICEF(1992): Children and women in Kenya-a situational analysis: A publication of the Government of Kenya and UNICEF, pp.93-103, Kenya Country Office, Regal Press, Nairobi
  14. Ijarotimi OS, Oyeneyin OO(2005): Effect of economy restructuring on household food security and nutritional status of Nigerian children. J Food Agriculture Environment 3(3 & 4): 27-32
  15. Ivanovic DM, Leiva BP, Perez HT, Inzunza NB, Almagia AF, Toro TD, Urrutia MS, Cervilla JO, Bosch EO(2000): Long term effects of severe under nutrition during the first year of life on brain development and learning in Chilean high school graduates. Nutrition 16(11-12): 1056-1063 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(99)00181-1
  16. Ivanovic DM, Leiva BP, Perez HT, Inzunza NB, Almagia AF, Toro TD, Urrutia MS, Cervilla JO, Bosch EO(2002): Nutritional status, brain development and scholastic achievement of Chilean high school graduates from high and low intellectual quotient and socio-economic status. British J Nutrition 87(1): 81-92 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2001485
  17. Jellife DB(1999): The assessment of nutritional status in the community, pp.72-79, WHO monograph series no 53. Academic Press, Geneva
  18. Johnson RK, Driscoll P, Goran MI(1996): Comparison of multiplepass 24-hour recall estimates of energy intake with total energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water method in young children. J Am Diet Assoc 96(11): 1140-1144 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(96)00293-3
  19. Kerr MA, Black MM, Krishnakumar A(2000): Failure-to-thrive, maltreatment and the behavior and development of 6-year-old children from low-income, urban families: a cumulative risk model. Child Abuse Negl 24(5): 587-598 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00126-5
  20. Kielmann AA(1988): Unit of Applied Human Nutrition. Assessment of the nutritional impact of the Wamba Food Security Programme: Unit of Applied Human Nutrition, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, pp.31-36, University of Nairobi, Nairobi
  21. Kleinman R(1998): New Harvard research shows school breakfast program may improve children behavior and performance. Kid- Source Online. Available: http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/ content4/breakfast.html
  22. Liu J, Raine A, Venables PH, Dalais C, Mednick SA(2003): Malnutrition at age 3 years and lower cognitive ability at age 11 years: independence from psychosocial adversity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 157(6): 593-600 https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.157.6.593
  23. Lytle L, Nichaman M, Obarzanek E, Glowvsky E, Montgormery D, Nicklas T(1993): Validation of 24-hour recalls assisted by food records in third-grade children. J Am Diet Assoc 93(12): 1431-1436 https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-8223(93)92247-U
  24. Lytle LA, Murray DM, Perry CL, Eldridge AL(1998): Validating fourth-grade students' self-report of dietary intake: results from the 5 A Day Power Plus program. J Am Diet Assoc 98(5): 321-340
  25. Martorell R, Rivera J, Kaplowitz H, Pollitt E(1992): Long-term consequences of growth retardation during early childhood. In Human growth: basic and clinical aspects, eds M Hernandez & J Argente, pp.143-149. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers
  26. Mendez MA, Adair LS(1999): Severity and timing of stunting in the first two years of life affect performance on cognitive tests in late childhood. J Nutrition 129: 1555-1562 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/129.8.1555
  27. Murphy JM, Pagano ME, Nachmani J, Sperling P, Kane S, Kleinman RE(1998): The relationship of school breakfast to psychosocial and academic functioning: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in an inner-city school sample. Arch Pediatric Adolesc Med 152(9): 899-907 https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.152.9.899
  28. National Dairy Council(2003): School meal programs: Challenges and opportunities. Available: http://www.nationaldairycouncil. org/Iv104/nutrilib/digest/dairydigest_711.htm
  29. National Education Association(2003): Health Information Network. Federal child nutrition programs for schools. Available: http:// www.neahin.org/programs/physical/federalprograms.htm
  30. NCHS(1976): United State Public Health Services, Health Resources Administration, Growth Charts, Rockville, MD U.S.A: National Centre for Health Statistics
  31. Onis M, Frongillo EA, Blossner M(2000): Is malnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition since 1980. Bulletin World Health Organization 78(10): 1222-1233
  32. Paula B, Sofia G(2003): Poverty, equity, human rights and health. Bull World Health Organ 81(7): 539-545
  33. Pieters JJL, De Moel JPC, Van Steenbergen O, Van Der Hoeven WJM(1977): Effects of school feeding on growth of children in Kirinyaga District, Kenya. East Afr Med J 54: 624-629
  34. Pollitt E, Gorman KS, Engle PL, Martorell R, Rivera J(1993): Early supplementary feeding and cognition. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 58(7): 1-99
  35. Pollitt E(1995): Does breakfast make a difference in school? J Am Diet Assoc 95(10): 1134-1139 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(95)00306-1
  36. Rathnayake I, Weerahewa J(2005): Maternal employment and income affect dietary calorie adequacy in household in Sri Lanka. Food Nutrition Bulletin 26(2): 222-229 https://doi.org/10.1177/156482650502600206
  37. Sigman M, Neumann C, Jansen AAJ, Bwibo N(1989): Cognitive abilities of Kenyan children in relation to nutrition, family characteristics, and education. Child Dev 60(6): 1463-1474 https://doi.org/10.2307/1130935
  38. Simeon DT, Grantham-McGregor S(1989): Effects of missing breakfast on the cognitive functions of school children of differing nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutrition 49: 646-653 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/49.4.646
  39. UNICEF(1990): Strategy for Improved Nutrition of Children and Women in Developing countries, pp.29-35, UNICEF Policy Review
  40. Waterlow JC, Buzina R, Keller W, Lane JM, Nichaman MZ, Tanner JM(1977): The presentation and use of height and weight data for comparing the nutritional status of groups of children under the age of 10 years. Bull World Health Organ 55(4): 489-498
  41. WHO(1985): Report of joint expert consultation on energy and protein requirements. Technical Report Services No. 724. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University, Geneva
  42. WHO(1986): Use of interpretation of Anthropometric indicators of Nutritional status. WHO working group. Bull World Health Organ 64: 929-941
  43. WHO(1995): Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. World Health Organization, Geneva
  44. WHO/FAO(1992): Kenya country position paper on nutrition. International Conference on Nutrition, pp.55-86, WHO/FAO, Rome
  45. Worobey J, Worobey HS(1999): The impact of a two-year school breakfast program for preschool-aged children on their nutrient intake and pre-academic performance. Child Study J 29(2): 113