Economic Injury Levels for the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Soybean

콩 담배거세미나방(Spodoptera litura)의 경제적 피해수준

  • Published : 2006.12.30


The damage aspects of soybean by common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at different larval density and different growth stage of soybean were studied in soybean field. The percent yield reduction(Y) of soybean infested by different densities of S. litura (X, no. of larvae/plant) under outdoor conditions for a three week period were estimated by the following equations: (1) Y = 1.655X - 6.025 ($R^{2}=0.952$) for the R1 (flowering stage); (2) Y = 0.725X - 0.475 ($R^{2}=0.986$) for the R3 (beginning pod stage); and (3) Y = 0.635X - 1.325 ($R^{2}=0.986$) for the R5 (beginning seed stage). Based on the relationships between the densities of S. litura larvae and the yield index of soybean, the number of larvae (2nd-3rd instar) which caused 5% loss of yield (Tolerable injury level) was estimated to as approximately 6.7 for the R1, 7.5 for the R5, and 10.0 per plant for the R5, respectively. Average soybean leaf areas consumed by 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th larvae of Spodoptera litura during 24 hr at $28^{\circ}C$ was 0.3, 0.7, 2.6, 4.0, 20.1, and $55.8\;cm^{2}$, respectively.


Soybean;Spodoptera litura;Damage level


  1. Kim, C.H. and H.Y. Shin. 1987. Studies on bionomics and control of tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius in southern part of korea. J. Insect. Sci. 5: 33-36
  2. Kiritani, K. 1980. Integrated insect pest management for rice in japan. In Proc international symposium on problems of insect pest management in developing countries. Tropical Agriculture Research Center, Kyoto, Japan. pp. 13-22
  3. Takashi, S., K. Hitoshi and K. Keizi. 1983. Effect of artificial defoliation on growth and yield of soybean: Development of dynamic economic injury level and control threshold. Jpn, Appl. Entomol. Zool. 27: 203-210
  4. Jun, K. and S. Koji. 1989. Damage analysis of red bean plants caused by the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Jpn. J. Appl. Ent. Zool. 33: 57-62
  5. Stone and Pedigo. 1972. Development and economic injury level of thy green cloverworm on soybean in Iowa. J. Econ. Entomol. 65: 197-201
  6. Kiritani, K. 1979. Pest management in rice. Annu. Rev. Entornol. 24: 279-312
  7. Hyun, J.S. 1962. Basic problems in insect control-Special reference to economic control-. Sanrock. 11: 45-50
  8. Nasr, E.S., M.A. Moussa and A.S. Hassan. 1960. Soil moisture in relation to population and moth emergence of the cotton leaf worm, Prodenia litura Fabricius. Bull. Soc. Entom. Egypte. XLIV: 377-382
  9. Adachi, I. and F. Nakasuji. 1985. Definition of economic injury level-Review and theoretical analysis. Plant Protec. 39: 301-309 (in Japanese)
  10. Stern, V.M., R.F. Smith, R. van den Bosch and K.S. Hagen. 1959. The integrated control concept. Hilgardian 29: 81-102
  11. Taguchi, R. 1961. On the outbreak of tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Plant Quarantine 15: 541-542
  12. Bae, S.D. and H.J. Cho. 1998. Study on the physio-biology and control of Spodoptera litura Fabricius. PI. Environ. Res. Rept. Nat. Yeongnam Agric. Expt. Sta. RDA. pp. 877-907
  13. Maltais, P.M., Nuckle, J.R. and P.V. Leblanc. 1998. Economic threshold for three lepidopterous larval pests of fresh-market cabbage in southeastern New Brunswick. J. Econ. Entomol. 91: 699-707
  14. Bae, S.D. 1999. Leaf characteristics of leguminous plants and the biology of tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius, The larval development and leaf feeding amount. Kor. J. Appl. Entomol. 38: 217-224
  15. Minamikawa, H. 1937. Survey on the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Taiwan Central Res. Int. Agr. Report 70: 1-66
  16. Mochida, O. and Okada. 1974. A bibliography of Spodoptera litura spp (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Misc. Bull. Kyushu Nat. Agr. Expt. Sta. 49: 1-100
  17. Bae, S.D., k.B. Park and Y.J. Oh. 1997. Effects of temperature and food source on the egg and larval development of tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Kor. J. Appl. Entomol. 36: 48-54
  18. Omino, T., S. Yokoi and H. Tsuji. 1973. Experimental studies on the daytime behaviour of noctuid larvae, the cabbage armyworm, Mamestra brassicae, the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura, and black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon. Jap. J. Appl. Ent. Zool. 17(4): 215-220
  19. Bae, S.D. and K.B. Park. 1999. Effects of temperature and food source on pupal development, adult longevity and oviposition of the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Kor. J. Appl. Entomol. 38: 23-28
  20. Shin, H.Y., C.H. Kim, C.G. Park and Y.S. Lee. 1987. Biology of tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 1. Seasonal occurence of tobacco cutworm in southern korea and larval development, pupal period, adult longevity and oviposition on the different food sources. Res. Rept. RDA (D. M and U). 29: 301-307