Characteristics of Biosurfactant Producing Pseudomonas sp. G314

생물 계면활성제를 생산하는 Pseudomonas sp. G314의 특성

  • 심소희 (한남대학교 생명나노과학대학 생명공학과) ;
  • 박경량 (한남대학교 생명나노과학대학 생명공학과)
  • Published : 2006.12.30


Three hundred thirty two bacterial colonies which were able to degrade crude oil were isolated from soil samples that were contaminated with oil in Daejon area. Among them, one bacterial strain was selected for this study based on its low surface tension ability, and this selected bacterial strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. G314 through physiological-biochemical tests and analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence. Pseudomonas sp. G314 showed a high resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, and streptomycin, and heavy metals such as Li, Cr, and Mn. It was found that the optimal pH and temperature for biosurfactant production of Pseudomonas sp. G314 were pH 7.0 and $30^{\circ}C$, respectively. After seven hours of inoculated, the biosurfactant activity reached the maximum, and surface tension of the culture broth was decreased from 72 to 25 dyne/cm. The crude biosurfactant was obtained from the culture broth by acid precipitation, followed by solvent extraction, evaporation and then freeze drying. The CMC (critical micelle concentration) value of the crude biosurfactant was 20 mg/L.

대전일원의 유류오염 지역의 토양으로부터 원유를 단일 탄소원으로 이용하는 총 322균주를 순수분리 하였고, 이중 생물 계면활성제(biosurfactant) 생성능이 가장 우수한 한 균주를 최종 선별하여 형태 및 생리 생화학적 특성을 조사하고 16S rRNA 염기서열을 분석을 통하여 동정한 결과 Pseudomonas sp.로 확인되어 Pseudomonas sp. G314라 명명하였다. 최종 선별된 Pseudomonas sp. G314는 암피실린, 클로람페니콜, 스펙티노마이신, 스트렙토마이신 등의 항생제와 Li, Cr, Mn 등의 중금속에 대해 강한 내성을 갖고 있었고, 최적 온도와 pH는 각각 $30^{\circ}C$와 pH 7.0으로 확인되었다. Pseudomonas sp. G314가 생성하는 생물 계면활성제의 초기 표면장력은 72 dyne/cm이었으나, 배양 7시간 후 부터는 표면장력이 최대 25 dyne/cm까지 감소되었다. Pseudomonas sp. G3l4가 생산하는 생물 계면활성제를 회수하고 농축하기 위해, 산 침전 후에 유기용매로 배양액을 추출하고 이를 감압농축하여 얻은 시료를 crude biosurfactant로 사용하여 CMC (critical micelle concentration)간을 측정한 결과 20 mg/L로 확인되었다.



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