Assessment of Antioxidative Capacity in Relation to Seed Trails of Rice Varieties

  • Song, Hong-Keun (Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life & Environment Science, Konkuk University) ;
  • Ahn, Joung-Kuk (Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life & Environment Science, Konkuk University) ;
  • Kim, Kwang-Ho (Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life & Environment Science, Konkuk University) ;
  • Lee, Sun-Joo (Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life & Environment Science, Konkuk University) ;
  • Baek, Jin-Yeong (Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life & Environment Science, Konkuk University) ;
  • Chung, Ill-Min (Department of Applied Life Science, College of Life & Environment Science, Konkuk University)
  • Published : 2006.12.31

Abstract

In order to assess antioxidant capacity in relation to seed traits of rice (Oryza sativa L.), ninety-six varieties were examined for antioxidative activity of brown rice grain using superoxide dismutase (SOD), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. Overall, average total activities measured by the three methods were of very wide range between 64% and 13%. Significant differences were noted depending on the variety and evaluation method. Rice varieties with foreign origin, middle maturity, colored hulls, and colorless awn exhibited statistically significant higher total activity. As for the measurements, total activity was significantly correlated with SOD (r=0.29***), DPPH (r=0.80***) and TBA (r=0.76***). Between the three activities, SOD was not positively correlated with DPPH (r=0.15*), while TBA was significantly correlated with DPPH value (r=0.51***). DPPH (55.20%) and TBA (50.36%) were significantly higher in foreign rice, while SOD activity (44.29%) was significantly higher in domestic rice. However, an average total activity was significantly higher in foreign rice (47.31%) than in domestic rice (35.92%). SOD, DPPH and TBA activities of middle maturity in maturity time were the highest total activity (44.96%) and significantly differed from the other two groups. Total activity was significantly higher in rice with a colorless awn (42.18%) than with a colored awn (35.87%).

References

  1. Baber, S. 1972. In D.F. Houston (ed.) Rice chemistry and technology. American Association Cereal Chemists. p. 237
  2. Bannister, J. V., W. H. Bannister, and G. Rotilio. 1987. Aspects of the structure, function, and applications of superoxide dismutase. CRC Critical Reviews in Biochemistry. 22: 111-180 https://doi.org/10.3109/10409238709083738
  3. Beyer, W. F. and I. Jr. Fridovich. 1987. Assaying for superoxide dismutase activity: some large consequences of minor changes in conditions. Analytical Biochemistry. 161 : 559-566 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(87)90489-1
  4. Bunzel, M., E. Allerdings, V. Sinwell, J. Ralph, and H. Steinhart. 2002. Cell wall hydroxycinnamates in wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.) insoluble dietary fibre. European Food Research and Technology. 214: 482-488 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-002-0512-3
  5. Chi, H. Y., C. H. Lee, K. H. Kim, and I. M. Chung. 2006. Analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidation activity with H4IIE cells of three different rice grain varieties. European Food Research and Technology (accepted)
  6. Choi, H. Y., E. J. Jhun, B. O. Lim, I. M. Chung, S. H. Kyung, and D. K. Park. 2000. Application of flow injection-chemiluminescence to the study of radical scavenging activity in plants. Phytotherapy Research. 14: 250-253 https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1573(200006)14:4<250::AID-PTR587>3.0.CO;2-J
  7. Chung, I. M., J. K. Ahn, and J. O. Lee. 2000a. Test of bioactive activity of Korean rice (Oryza sativa L.) by SOD, DPPH, TBA, PLC and PKC. J. of Konkuk University Agriculture Research and Development. 22: 37-46
  8. Chung, I. M., K. H. Kim, J. K. Ahn, and J. O. Lee. 2000b. Varietal variation in antioxidative activity of rice grain by DPPH and TBA methods. Korean J. of Crop Sci. 45: 261-266
  9. Chung, I. M., K. H. Kim, J. K. Ahn, and J. O. Lee. 2000c. Comparison of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities in rice varieties. Korean J. Crop Sci. 45 : 277-281
  10. Chung, I. M., K. H. Kim, and B. H. Kang. 2000d. Change of SOD, POD activity and stomata resistance for ozone on rice (Oryza sativa L.). Korean J. of Environmental Agriculture. 19 : 160-165. (In korean with abstract in English)
  11. Chung, I. M., C. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, and S. H. Kim. 2001. The survival growth response and SOD, POD activity of rice cultivars grown on Pb concentration soils. J. of Konkuk University Agriculture Research and Development. 23 : 15-24
  12. Cutler, R.G 1984. Antioxidants, aging, and longevity. 6: 371-428. In W. A. Pryor (ed.) Free Radicals in Biology. Academic Press, Orlando, F.L
  13. Fridovich, I. 1986. Superoxide dismutases. Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biolo gy. 58: 61-97
  14. Halliwell, B. 1992. The role of oxygen radicals in human disease with particular reference to the vascular system. Haemostasis 23(sppl.1) : 118-126
  15. Hudson, E. A., P. A. Dinh, T. Kokubun, M. S. J. Simmonds, and A. Gescher. 2000. Characterization of potentially chemopreventive phenols in extracts of brown rice that inhibit the growth of human breast and colon cancer cells. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 9 : 1163-1170
  16. Kanematsu, S. and K. Asada. 1989. Cu/Zn-superioxide dismutases in rice: Occurrence of an active, monomeric enzyme and two types of isozyme in leaf and non-photosynthetic tissues. Plant and Cell Physiology. 30 : 381-391
  17. Kanematsu, S. and K. Asada. 1990. Characteristic amino acid sequences of chloroplast and cytosol isozymes of CuZn-superioxide dismutase in spinach, rice and horsetail. Plant and Cell Physiology. 31 : 99-112
  18. Kang, M. Y., S. Y. Shin, and S. H. Nam. 2003. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of solvent-fractionated layers of colored rice bran. Korean J. of Food Science and Technology. 35: 951-958
  19. Kim, J. A., J. M. Lee, and D. B. Shin. 2004. Changes of antioxidant activities of Ecklonia cava with harvesting period. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 13 : 362-366
  20. Kong, W. S., S. H. Kim, J. S. Park, S. J. Hahn, and I. M. Chung. 2004. Evaluation and selection of anti oxidative activities of 80 collected and mated mushroom strains. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 13(5) : 689-693
  21. Lazarow, P. B. and Y. Fujiki. 1985. Biogenesis of peroxisomes. Annual Review of Cell Biology. 1 : 489-530 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.cb.01.110185.002421
  22. Lee, S. J., I. M. Chung, J. K. Ahn, S. K. Lee, S. H. Kim, and N. H. Yoo. 2002. Variation in antioxidant activity of soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties with crop year and duration of storage time. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 11 : 649-653
  23. Ling, W. H., Q. X. Cheng, J. Ma, and T. Wang. 2001. Red and black rice decrease artherosclerotic plaque formation and increase antioxidant status in rabbits. J. of Nutrition. 131 : 1421-1426 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.5.1421
  24. McCord, J. M. and I. Fridovich. 1969. Superoxide dismutase. An enzymic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein). J. of Biological Chemistry. 244 : 6049-6055
  25. Mitsuta, K., Y. Mizuta, M. Kohno, M. Hiramatsu, and A. Mori. 1990. The application of ESR spin trapping technique to the evaluation of SOD-like activity of biological substances. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan. 63 : 187-191 https://doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.63.187
  26. Nam, S. H., S. M. Chang, and M. Y. Kang. 2003. Varietal difference in anti oxidative activity of ethanolic extacts from colored rice bran. J. of Korean Society Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology. 46: 16-22
  27. Nam, S. H., S. P. Choi, M. Y. Kang, N. Kozukue, and M. Friedman. 2005. Antioxidative, antimutagenic, and anti carcinogenic activities of rice bran extracts in chemical and cell assays. J. of. Agricutural and Food Chemistry. 53: 816-822 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0490293
  28. Navasero, E. P., L. C. Baun, and B. O. Juliano. 1975. Grain dormancy, peroxidase activity and oxygen uptake in Oryza sativa. Phytochemistry. 14 : 1899-1902 https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(75)83092-5
  29. Oki, T., M. Masuda, M., M. Kobayashi, Y. Nishiba, S. Furuta, I. Suda, and T. Sato. 2002. Polymeric procyanidins as radicalscavenging components in red-hulled rice. J. of Agricutural and Food Chemistry. 50: 7524-7529 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025841z
  30. Osawa, T., N. Ramarathnam, K. Shunro, N. Mitsuo, and T. Toru. 1985. Antioxidative defense system in rice hull against damage caused by oxygen radicals. J. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 49: 3085-3087 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.49.3085
  31. Osawa, T. 1999. Protective role of rice polyphenols in oxidative stress. Anticancer Research. 19: 3645-3650
  32. Pan, S. M. and Y. Y. Yau. 1991. The isozymes ofsuperioxide dismutase in rice. Botanical Bulletin Academia Sinica 32 : 253-258
  33. Park, P.W 1995. Toxic compounds derived from lipids. p.363. In I. J. Jeon, and WG. Ikins (eds) Analyzing food for nutrition labeling and hazardous contaminants. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York
  34. Perl-Treves, R. and E. Galun. 1991. The totato Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase genes are developmentally regulated and respond to light and stress. Plant Molecular Biology. 17 : 745-760 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00037058
  35. Punchard, N. A. and F. J. Kelly. 1996. Free Radicals: A practical approach. IRL Press p. 1-6
  36. Ramarathnam, N., T. Osawa, M. Namiki, and T. Tashiro. 1986. Studies on the relationship between antioxidative activity of rice hull and germination ability of rice seed. J. ofthe Science of Food and Agriculture. 37 : 719- 726 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740370803
  37. Ramarathnam, N., T. Osawa, M. Namiki, and S. Kawakishi. 1989. Chemical studies on novel rice hull antioxidants. 2. Identification of isovitexin, A C-glycosyl flavonoid. J. of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 37 : 316-319 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00086a009
  38. Sakamoto, A., F. Ohsuga, and K. Tanaka. 1992. Nucleotide sequences of two cDNA clones encoding different Cu/Znsuperoxide dismutases expressed in developing rice seed (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Molecular Biology. 19: 323-327 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00027355
  39. SAS Institute., 2000. SAS user's guide; Basics. 5th ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC
  40. Sies, H. 1993. Strategies of antioxidant defense. European Journal of Biochemistry 215: 213-219 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb18025.x
  41. Simmons, D. and R. Williams. 1997. Dietary practices among Europeans and different South Asian groups in Coventry. British Journal of Nutrition. 78: 5-14 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19970114
  42. Tolbert, N. E. 1981. Metabolic pathways in peroxisomes and glyoxysomes. Annual Review of Biochemistry 50 : 133-157 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.50.070181.001025
  43. Van Acker, S.A.B.E., D. J. Van Den Berg, M. N. J. L. Tromp, D. H. Griffioen, W. P. Van Bennekom, W. J. F. Van Der Vijgh, and A. Bast. 1996. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2: 331-342
  44. Wong, S. F., B. Holliwell, R. Richimond, and W. R. Skowroneck. 1981. The role of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in the degradation of hyaluronic acid induced by metal ions and ascorbic acid. J. ofInorganic Biochemistry. 14: 127-134 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0162-0134(00)80033-1
  45. Wu, K., W Zhang, P. B. Addis, R. J. Epley, A. M. Salih, and J. Lehrfeld. 1994. Antioxidant Properties of wild rice. J. of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 42: 34-37 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00037a004
  46. Xu, Z., N. Hua, and J. S. Godber. 2001. Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2, 2-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride. J. of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49: 2077-2081 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0012852
  47. Vagi, K. 1987. Lipid peroxides and human disease. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 45: 337-351 https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-3084(87)90071-5
  48. Yosida, T., K. Mori, T. Hatano, T. Okumura, I. Uehara, K. Komagoe, Y. Fujita, and T. Okuda. 1989. Studies on inhibition mechanism of autooxidation by tannis and flavonoids. V. Radical scavenging effects of tannins and related polyphenols on 1,1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Chemical and Pharma-ceutical Bulletin. 37: 1919-1923 https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.37.1919