Effect of Glucose-Sweetened Drinks on Blood Glucose, Energy, and Water Intake at a Meal 3h Later in Healthy Males

  • Kim, Seok-Young (Department of Food and Nutrition, Gyeongsang National University)
  • Published : 2006.11.30


The aims of this study were to describe the effects of glucose-sweetened drinks on blood glucose, energy, and water intake at a meal 3 hours later. The effect of blood glucose on prandial energy intake and the relationship between water and energy intake during a meal were also determined. Twenty healthy normal-weight men were fed pizza test meals 3h after consuming four drinks of 0, 50g, 65g, and 75g glucose in random order, within-subjects design. Blood samples were measured at baseline and every 30 min after ingestion of drinks and 30min after the end of the test meal and the appetite was also assessed by visual analog test at the same interval. The results of this study showed that various glucose drinks altered blood glucose responses compared with that of water control(p<0.0001). Blood glucose areas under the curve(AUC) for glucose-sweetened drinks were significantly(p<0.05) higher than that for the control over 3 hours after a drink and 30 min after the test meal. Consumption of the glucose-sweetened drinks significantly increased(p<0.05) energy and water intake at a test meal compared with the water control, except the drink containing 75g glucose. For all drinks combined, the energy intake was negatively correlated with the blood glucose and positively correlated with the volume of water consumed at a test meal at 3 hours later.


  1. Senauer B, Asp E, Kinsey J. Trends and traditions in the American Diet. In: Food Trends and the changing consumer, pp13-67, Eagan Press, St. Paul, 1991
  2. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 357:505-508, 2001 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04041-1
  3. Pasman WJ, Blokdijk VM, Bertina FM, Hopman WPM, Hendriks HFJ. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men. Int J Obes 27(6):663-668, 2003 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802284
  4. Foster-Powell K, Holt SHA, Brand-Miller JC. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values:2002. Am J Clin Nutr 76:5-56, 2002 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/76.1.5
  5. Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, Roberts SB. High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics 103(3):e26, 1999 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.103.3.e26
  6. Wolf BW, Lai C-S, Kipnes MS, Ataya DG, Wheeler KB, Zinker BA, Garleb KA, Firkins JL. Glycemic and insulinemic responses of nondiabetic healthy adult subjects to an experimental acid-induced viscosity complex incorporated into a glucose beverage. Nutrition 18:621-626, 2002 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(02)00750-5
  7. Spiller GA, Jensen CD, Pattison TS, Chuck CS, Whittam JH, Scala J. Effect of protein does on serum glucose and insulin response to sugars. Am J Clin Nutr 46:474-480, 1987 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/46.3.474
  8. Krezowski PA, Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC, Bartosh NH. The effect of protein ingestion on the metabolic response to oral glucose in normal individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 44:847-856, 1986 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/44.6.847
  9. Westphal SA, Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. Metabolic response to glucose ingested with various amounts of protein. Am J Clin Nutr 52:267-272, 1990 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/52.2.267
  10. Melanson KJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Campfield LA, Saris WHM. Blood glucose 'and meal patterns in time-blinded males, after aspartame, carbohydrate, and fat consumption, in relation to sweetness perception. Br J Nutr 82:437-446, 1999
  11. Campfield LA, Smith FJ, Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J. Human eating: evidence for a physiological basis using a modified paradigm. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 20(1):133-137, 1996 https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-7634(95)00043-E
  12. Engell D. Interdependency of food and water intake in humans. Appetite 10:133-141, 1988 https://doi.org/10.1016/0195-6663(88)90064-5
  13. de Castro JM. A microregulatory analysis of spontaneous fluid intake by humans:evidence that the amount of liquid ingested and its timing is mainly governed by feeding. Physiol Behav 43(6):705-714, 1988 https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(88)90367-8
  14. Brime JI, Lppez-Sela P, Bernardo R, Costales M, Diaz F, Marin B, Vijande M. Psychological aspects of insulin-induced thirst. Physiol Behav 49(1):153-154, 1991 https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(91)90247-L
  15. Vijande M, Lopez-Sela P, Brime JI, Bernardo R, Diaz F, Costales M, Marin B. Insulin stimulation of water intake in human. Appetite 15:81-87, 1990 https://doi.org/10.1016/0195-6663(90)90041-6
  16. Vijande M, Lopez-Sela P, Brime JI, Diaz F, Costales M, Rivas MF, Marin B. Effects of insulin administration on water drinking in children. Rev Esp Fisiol 45(2):131-135, 1989
  17. Mela DJ, Rogers PJ. Externality, dietary restraint and the cognitive control of eating, In: Food, Eating and Obesity, The psychobiological basis of appetite and weight control. p.133, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1998
  18. Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Westphal SA, Neil BJ, Seaquist ER. Effects of dose of ingested glucose on plasma metabolite and hormone responses in type II diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 12(8):544-552, 1989 https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.12.8.544
  19. Cody RP, Smith JK. Repeared measures designs. In: Applied statistics and the SAS programming language, pp181-220, Prentice-Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, 1997
  20. Sclafani A. Carbohydrate induced hyperphagia and obesity in the rat: effects of saccharide type, form, and taste. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 11(2):155-162, 1987 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7634(87)80020-9
  21. Raben A, Vasilaras TH, Moller AC, Astrup A. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners:different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after l0wk of supplemenation in overweight subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 76: 721-729, 2002 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/76.4.721
  22. Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middleaged women. JAMA 292(8):927-934, 2004 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.292.8.927
  23. Rogers PJ, Carlyle JA, Hill AJ, Blundell JE. Uncoupling sweet taste and calories:comparison of the effects of glucose and three intense sweereners on hunger and food intake. Physiol Behav 43(5):547-552, 1988 https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(88)90207-7
  24. Woodend DM, Anderson GH. Effect of sucrose and safflower oil preloads on short term appetite and food intake of young men. Appetite 37:185-195, 2001 https://doi.org/10.1006/appe.2001.0425
  25. Sturm K, Parker B, Wishart J, Feinle-Bisset C, Jones KL, Chapman I, Horowitz M. Energy intake and appetite are related to antral area in healthy young and older subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 80:656-667, 2004 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/80.3.656
  26. Canty DJ, Chan MM. Effects of consumption of caloric vs noncaloric sweet drinks on indices of hunger and food consumption in normal adults. Am J Clin Nutr 53:1159-1164, 1991 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/53.5.1159
  27. Holt SHA, Sandona N, Brand-Miller JC. The effects of sugar-free vs sugar-rich beverages on feelings of fullness and subsequent food intake. Int J Food Sci Nutr 51:59-71, 2000 https://doi.org/10.1080/096374800750049576
  28. Rolls BJ, Kim S, Fedoroff IC. Effects of drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame on hunger, thirst and food intake in men. Physiol Behav 48(1): 19-26, 1990 https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(90)90251-X
  29. DellaValle DM, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Does the consumption of caloric and non-caloric beverages with a meal affect energy intake? Appetite 44: 187-193, 2005 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2004.11.003
  30. Rolls BJ, Kim S, McNelis AL, Fischman MW, Foltin RW, Moran TH. Time course of effects of preloads high in fat or carbohydrate on food intake and hunger ratings in humans. Am J Physiol 260(Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 29): R756-R763, 1991
  31. Almiron-Roig E, Drewnowski A. Hunger, thirst, and energy intakes following consumption of caloric beverages. Physiol Behav 79:767-773, 2003 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9384(03)00107-0
  32. Louis-Sylvestre J, Le Magnen J. Fall in blood glucose level precedes meal onset in free feeding rats. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 4(Suppl 1):13-15, 1980 https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-7634(80)90041-X
  33. Melanson KJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WHM, Smith FJ, Campfield A. Blood glucose patterns and appetite in time-blinded humans: carbohydrate versus fat. Am J Physiol 277:R337-R345, 1999
  34. Kovacs EMR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WHM, Melanson KJ, Goossens I, Geurten P, Brouns F. Associations between spontaneous meal initiations and blood glucose dynamics in overweight men in negative energy balance. British J Nutr 87:39-45, 2002 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2001473
  35. Quinlan P, Lane J, Aspinall L. Effects of hot tea, coffee and water ingestion on physiological responses and mood:the role of caffeine, water and beverage type. Psychopharmacology 134:164-173, 1997 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002130050438
  36. Nakae Y, Kagaya M, Takagi R, Matsutani Y, Horibe H, Kondo T. Cold pain prolongs gastric emptying of liquid but not solid meal: an electrical impedance tomography(EIT) study. J Gastroenterol 35:593-597, 2000 https://doi.org/10.1007/s005350070058
  37. Rolls BJ, Fedoroff IC, Guthrie JF, Laster LJ. Effects of temperature and mode of presentation of juice on hunger, thirst and food intake in humans. Appetite 15(3): 199-208, 1990 https://doi.org/10.1016/0195-6663(90)90020-9
  38. Mayer J. Regulation of energy intake and body weight: the glucostatic theory and the lipostatic hypothesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 63(1):15-43, 1955 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1955.tb36543.x
  39. Phillips PA, Rolls BJ, Ledingham JGG, Morton JJ. Body fluid changes, thirst and drinking in man during free access to water. Physiol Behav 33(3):357-363, 1984 https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(84)90154-9
  40. Gray RW, French SJ, Robinson TM, Yeomans MR. Increasing preload volume with water reduces rated appetite but not food intake in healthy men even with minimum delay between preload and test meal. Nutritional Neuroscience 6(1):29-37, 2003 https://doi.org/10.1080/1028415021000056032
  41. Rolls BJ, Bell EA, Thorwart ML. Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. Am J Clin Nutr 70:448-455, 1999 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/70.4.448