The Effects of MRI on Mouse Embryos During Fetal Stage

  • Nakamura, Takashi (Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science) ;
  • Ryu, Myung-Sun (Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science) ;
  • Sakazaki, Takahiko (Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science) ;
  • Itokawa, Yuka (Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science) ;
  • Maenaka, Toshihiro (Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science) ;
  • Masubuchi, Takashi (Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science) ;
  • Sekimoto, Hiroyuki (Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science) ;
  • Kanehara, Masayuki (Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science) ;
  • Kang, Young-Nam (Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science) ;
  • Gu, Yeun-Hwa (Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science)
  • Published : 2006.06.30

Abstract

The effects of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on mouse embryos at the early stage of organogenesis were investigated. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed on day 8 of gestation to MRI at 0.5 T for 0.5 hour to 3 hours. The mortality rates of embryos or fetuses, the incidence of external malformations, fetal body weight and sex ratio were observed at day 18 of gestation. A significant increase in embryonic mortality was observed after exposure to either 0.5 T MRI for 0.5 hour or 2 hours. However, the exposure to MRI for 1 hour or 3 hours did not induce any significant increase in embryonic mortality when compared with control. External malformations such as exencephaly, cleft palate and anomalies of tail were observed in all experimental groups exposed to each MRI. A statistically significant increase of external malformations was observed in all groups treated with 0.5 T MRI for 0.5 hour and 3 hours. The incidence of external malformations in the mice group exposed to 0.5 T MRI for 0.5-hour was found to be higher than those of mice group exposed to 0.5 T MRI for 2 hours. The effects of MRI on the external malformations might not to be dose-dependent. There was no statistically significant difference in fetal body weight and sex ratio among each MRI exposure groups.

References

  1. Murakami J, Torii Y, Masuda K. Fetal development of mice following intrauterine exposure to a static magnetic field of 6.3 T. Magn. Reson. Imaging. 1992;10:433-437 https://doi.org/10.1016/0730-725X(92)90514-Z
  2. Haseman JK, Hogan MD. Selection of the experimental unit in teratology studies. Teratology 1975;12:165-172 https://doi.org/10.1002/tera.1420120209
  3. Nishikawa U. Biological effects of pulsing electromagnetic field (PEMFs) on ICR mice. Nippon Seikeigeka Gakkai Zasshi 1987;61:1413-1428
  4. Tyndall DA. MRI effects on craniofacial size and crown-rump length in C57BL/6J mice in 1.5 T fields. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. 1993;76:655-660 https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-4220(93)90077-H
  5. Tyndall DA. MRI effects on the teratogenicity of x-irradiation in the C57BL/6J mouse. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1990;8:423-433 https://doi.org/10.1016/0730-725X(90)90051-3
  6. Kusama T, Hasegawa Y. Stage differences in developmental disorders in ICR mouse embryos irradiated with gamma rays. Cong. Anom. 1993;33:115-123 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-4520.1993.tb00517.x
  7. Carney AL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): is it safe? Clin Electroencephalogr XI, 1989;20:12-43
  8. Carnes KI, Magin RL. Effects of in utero exposure to 4.7 T MR imaging conditions on fetal growth and testicular development in the mouse. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1996;14:263-274 https://doi.org/10.1016/0730-725X(95)02099-F
  9. Kusama T, Yoshizawa Y. The synergistic effects of radiation and caffeine on embryonic development in mice. J. Radiat. Res. 1984;25:225-233 https://doi.org/10.1269/jrr.25.225
  10. Kowalczuk CI, Robbins L, Thomas JM, Butland BK. Saunders, Effects of prenatal exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields on development in mice: I. Implantation rate and fetal development. Bio. Elec. Magnet. 1994;15:349- 361
  11. Gu YH, Hasegawa T, Suzuki T. Combined effects of radiation and ultrasound on ICR mice in the preimplantation stage. Ultrasound Med. Biol. 2002;28(6):831-836 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-5629(02)00511-2
  12. Streffer C, Molls M. Cultures of preimplantation mouse embryos: A model or radiobiological studies. Adv. Radiat. Biol. 1987;13:169-212
  13. Mevissen M, Buntenkotter S, Loscher W. Effects of static and time-arying (50-Hz) magnetic fields on reproduction and fetal development in rats. Teratology 1994;50:229-237 https://doi.org/10.1002/tera.1420500308
  14. Wilson JG, Fraser FC. Current status of teratology - General principles and mechanisms derived from animal studies. In Handbook of Teratology. General principles and etiology. Plenum Press 1979;1:47-74
  15. Heinrichs WL, Fong P, Flannery M, Heinrichs SC, Crooks LE, Spindle A, Pedersen RA. Midgestational exposure of pregnant BALB/c mice to magnetic resonance imaging conditions. Magn. Reson. Imaging. 1988;6:305-313 https://doi.org/10.1016/0730-725X(88)90407-9
  16. Zimmermann B, Hentschel D. Effect of a static magnetic field (3.5 T) on the reproductive behavior of mice, on the embryo and fetal development and on selected hematologic parameters. Digitale Bilddiagn 1987;7:155-161
  17. Miyakoshi J, Ohtsu S, Shibata T, Takebe H. Exposure to magnetic field (5 mT at 60Hz) does not affect cell growth and c-myc gene expression. J. Radiat. Res. 1996;37:185-191 https://doi.org/10.1269/jrr.37.185
  18. Kusama T, Sugiura N, Kai M, Yoshizawa Y. Effects of radiation and caffeine on embryonic development in mice. Radiat. Res. 1989;117:273-281 https://doi.org/10.2307/3577328
  19. Konermann G, Monig H. Effect of static magnetic fields on the prenatal development of the mouse, Radiology 1986;26:490-497
  20. Kusama T, Gu YH. Effects of radiation and ultrasound on embryonic development in ICR mice. J. Radiat. Res. 1992;33:67-68
  21. Gu YH. The development effects of Radiation on mice embryos in preimplantation stage. J. Kor. Associ. Radiat. Prote. 1996;21:273-284
  22. Gu YH, Kai M, Kusama T. The embryonic and fetal effects in ICR mice irradiated in the various stages of the preimplantation period. Radiat. Res. 1997;147:735-740 https://doi.org/10.2307/3579488
  23. ICRP; The recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection. Nonstochastic effects of ionizing radiation. Publ.41, Pergamon Press, Oxford. 1984: 1-26
  24. Streffer C. Distribution of micronuclei among single cells of pre-implantation mouse embryos after X-irradiation invitro. Cell. Tissue. Kinet. 1980;13:135-143
  25. Okuda T, Nishizawa K, Ejima Y, Nakatsugawa S, Ishigaki T, Ishizaki K. The effects of static magnetic fields and X-rays on instability of microsatellite repetitive sequences. J. Radiat. Res. 1998;39:279-287 https://doi.org/10.1269/jrr.39.279
  26. Tyndall DA, Sulik KK. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging on eye development in the C57BL/6J mouse. Teratology 1991;43:263-275 https://doi.org/10.1002/tera.1420430310