DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Changes in Flavonoid Contents of Safflower Leaf during Growth and Processing

  • Lee, Jun-Young (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Daegu) ;
  • Park, Kyeng-Seok (Research Institute of Natural Product, Gyeongbuk Provincial A.T.A) ;
  • Choi, Sang-Won (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Daegu)
  • Published : 2005.03.01

Abstract

Eight flavonoids, apigenin-6-C-β-D-glucopyranosy l-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (AGG), quercetin 7-O-β-D­glucopyranoside (QG), luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (LG), quercetin 7-O-(6'-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (QAG), luteolin 7-O-(6'-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside(LAG), quercetin (Q), luteolin (L) and acacetin 7-O-β­D-glucuronide (AG) were determined by HPLC in the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) leaf during growth and processing. During growth, levels of five flavonoid glycosides (AGG, QG, LG, QAG, & LAG) in the leaf increased progressively at over time according to growth stages, reached a maximum before June 11, and then decreased sharply, while those of three flavonoid aglycones (Q, L, & AG) increased greatly at the early stage of growth, reached a peak before May 28, and then decreased rapidly. During the steaming process, contents of five flavonoid glycosides increased rapidly with increased steaming time, reached a maximum after 5 min of steaming, and then decreased, whereas those of flavonoid aglycones except for AG decreased sharply with increased steaming time. During the roasting process, contents of three flavonoid glycosides decreased rapidly with increased roasting time, whereas those of two acetylflavonoid glycosides (QAG & LAG) and three flavonoid aglycones increased progressively with increased roasting time, reached a maximum after 3 min of roasting, and then decreased. These results suggest that appropriate steamed and roasted safflower leaves are a rich source of flavonoids, and may be a good source of bioactive components as a functional leaf tea.

References

  1. Han DS. 1995. Saengyakhak, Carthami Flos. Dongmyungsa, Seoul. p 270-271
  2. Kim MN, Kim KH. 1992. Research for analgesic and hepatoprotective action of Carthami Flos. Pusan Bull Pharm Sci 26: 32-36
  3. Kim IH. 1992. Sinyakboncho. Insandongcheon press, Seoul. p 567-568
  4. Kim JH, Jeon SM, Park YA, Choi MS, Moon KD. 1999. Effects of safflower seed (Carthamus tinctorious L.) powder on lipid metabolism in high fat and high cholesterolfed rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 28: 625-631
  5. Moon KD, Back SS, Kim JH, Jeon SM, Lee MK, Choi MS. 2001. Safflower seed extract lowers plasma and hepatic lipids in rats fed high-cholesterol diet. Nutr Res 21: 895-904 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(01)00293-7
  6. Cho SH, Lee HR, Kim TH, Choi SW, Lee WJ, Choi YS. 2004. Effects of dafatted safflower seed extract and phenolic compounds in diet on plasma and liver lipid in ovariectomized rats fed high-cholesterol diets. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 50: 32-37 https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.50.32
  7. Kim JH, Jeon SM, An MY, Ku SK, Lee JH, Choi MS, Moon KD. 1998. Effects of diet of Korean safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed powder on bone tissue in rats during the recovery of rib fracture. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 27: 698-704
  8. Chung SY, Choi HJ, Chung MW, Ahn MR, Yoo TM, Rheu HM, Yang JS. 1999. Effects of safflower seed on the fracture healing in rat tibia. Yakhak Hoeji 43: 526-534
  9. Kim HJ, Bae YC, Choi SW, Cho SH, Park RW, Choi YS, Lee WJ. 2002. Bone-sparing effect of safflower seeds in ovariectomized rats. Calcif Tissue Int 71: 88-94 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-001-1080-4
  10. Kim KH, Kim MN. 1992. Constituents of Carthami flos. Yakhak Hoeji 36: 556-562
  11. Zhang HL, Nagatsu A, Watanabe T, Sakakibara J, Okuyama H. 1997. Antioxidative compounds isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorus L.) oil cake. Chem Pharm Bull 45: 1910-1914 https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.45.1910
  12. Baek NI, Kim YH, Ahn EM, Bang MH, Nam JY, Kwon BM. 1998. Isolation of biologically active compounds from the flower petals of Carthamus tinctorius L. Agric Chem Biotechnol 41: 197-200
  13. Kang GW, Chang EJ, Choi SW. 1999. Antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds in roasted safflower (Carthamus tinctorus L.) seeds. J Food Sci Nutr 4: 221-225
  14. Roh JS, Sun WS, Oh SU, Lee JI, Oh WT, Kim JH. 1999. In vitro antioxidant activity of safflower (Carthamus tinctorus L.) seeds. Food Sci Biotechnol 8: 88-92
  15. Bae SJ, Shim SM, Park YJ, Lee JY, Chang EJ, Choi SW. 2002. Cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds isolated from the seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) on cancer cell lines. Food Sci Biotechnol 11: 140-146
  16. Kwak JE, Kim KI, Jeon H, Hong BS, Cho HY, Yang HC. 2002. Study of macrophage stimulating activity of the polysaccharide isolated from leaves of Carthamus tinetorus L. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 31: 527-533 https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.3.527
  17. Havsteen B. 1983. Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem Pharmacol 32: 1141-1148 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(83)90262-9
  18. Harborne JB. 1986. Nature, distribution and function of plant flavonoids. In Plant flavonoids in biology and medicine: Biochemical, pharmacological and structureactivity relationships. Cody V, Middleton E, Harborne J, eds. Academic Press, New York. p 15-24
  19. Middleton E, Kandaswami C. 1994. The impact of plant flavonoids on mammalian biology: Implications for immunity, inflammation and cancer. In The flavonoids: Advances in research since 1986. Harborne JB, ed. Chapman & Hall, London. p 619-652
  20. Harborne JB, Williams CA. 2000. Review: Advances in flavonoid research since 1992. Phytochemistry 55: 481-504 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00235-1
  21. Yoshimoto T, Furukawa M, Yamamoto S, Horie T, Watanabe-Kohno S. 1983. Flavonoids: Potent inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 116: 612-618 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291X(83)90568-5
  22. Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH, Katan MB. 1992a. Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of 28 vegetables and 9 fruits commonly consumed in the netherlands. J Agric Food Chem 40: 2379-2383 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00024a011
  23. Lee Y, Howard LR, Villalon B. 1995. Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of fresh pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars. J Food Sci 60: 473-476 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb09806.x
  24. Leighton T, Ginther C, Fluss L, Harter WK, Cansado J, Notorio V. 1992. Molecular charaterization of quercetin and quercetin glucosides in Allium vegetables. In Phenolic compounds in food and their effects on health II. Huang MT, Ho CT, Lee CY, eds. American Chemical Society, Washington DC. p 230-238
  25. Lee JY, Chang EJ, Kim HJ, Park JH, Choi SW. 2002. Antioxidative flavonoids from leaves of Carthamus tinctorius. Arch Pharm Res 25: 313-319 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02976632
  26. Park JJ, Park SD, Kim HJ, Choi SW. 2001. Quantification and antioxidative properties of flavonoids isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorus L.) leaf in relation to different roasting and steamming processing. Abstract No P14-71 presented at 11th World Congress of Food Science and Technology. Seoul, Korea
  27. Chung SH, Moon KD, Kim JK, Seong JH, Sohn TH. 1994. Changes of chemical components in persimmon leaves during growth for processing persimmon leaves tea. Kor J Food Sci Technol 26: 141-146
  28. Iwasa K. 1975. Method chemical analysis of green tea. Jpn Agr Res Quart 9: 161-169
  29. Izumi T, Nasu A, Kataoka S, Tokutake S, Obata A, Tobe K. 1997. An efficient preparation of acetyl isoflavone glucoside. Chem Pharm Bull 45: 1593-1595 https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.45.1593
  30. Ko YS, Lee IS. 1985. A study on the changes of the components in the steaming and roasting green tea after heat treatments according to time. J Kor Soc Home Economic 23: 29-36
  31. Joung SY, Lee SJ, Sung NJ, Jo JS, Kang SK. 1995. The chemical composition of persimmon (Diospyros kaki, Thumb) leaf tea. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 24: 720-726
  32. Seo HJ, Kim JH, Kwak DY, Jeon SM, Ku SK, Lee JH, Moon KD, Choi MS. 2000. The effects of safflower seed powder and its fraction on bone tissue in rib-fractured rats during the recovery. Kor J Nutr 33: 411-420
  33. Wang HJ, Murphy PA. 1996. Mass balance study of iso-flavones during soybean processing. J Agric Food Chem 44: 2377-2383 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf950535p
  34. Nobakht M, Fattahi M, Hoormand M, Milanian I, Rabbar N, Mahmoudian M. 2000. A study on the teratogenic and cytotoxic effects of safflower extract. J Ethnopharmacol 73: 453-459 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00324-X
  35. Laughton JM, Evans PJ, Moroney MA, Hoult JRS, Halliwell B. 1991. Inhibition of mammalian lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase by flavonoids and phenolic dietary additives. Biochem Pharmacol 42: 1673-1681 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(91)90501-U
  36. Kawashima S, Hayashi M, Takii T, Kimura H, Zhang HL, Nagatsu A, Sakakibara J, Murata K, Oomoto Y, Onozaki K. 1998. Serotonin derivative, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, inhibits the production of TNF- $\alpha$, IL-1 $\alpha$, IL-1$\beta$, and IL-6 by endotoxin-stimulated human blood monocytes. J Interfer Cytokin Res 18: 423-428 https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.1998.18.423

Cited by

  1. Flavonoids in Subtribe Centaureinae (Cass.)Dumort.(Tribe Cardueae, Asteraceae): Distribution and13C-NMR Spectral Data vol.9, pp.10, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201100208
  2. Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing vol.17, pp.4, 2012, https://doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2012.17.4.280
  3. Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings vol.18, pp.4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2013.18.4.256