DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Feather Meal and It's Digest on Taurine Content of Cow Milk

우모분 및 우모분 Digest 첨가가 우유 내 Taurine 함량에 미치는 영향

  • Bae, G.S. (Department of Animal Science & Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Kim, H.S. (Department of Animal Science & Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Paik, I.K. (Department of Animal Science & Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Chang, M.B. (Department of Animal Science & Technology, Chung-Ang University)
  • 배귀석 (중앙대학교 산업과학대학 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 김혜숙 (중앙대학교 산업과학대학 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 백인기 (중앙대학교 산업과학대학 동물자원과학과) ;
  • 장문백 (중앙대학교 산업과학대학 동물자원과학과)
  • Published : 2005.06.30

Abstract

This study, consisting of three experiments, was conducted to determine the effects of feeding feather meal (FM), feather meal digest (FMD), L-cystine and methionine hydroxyl analogue (MHA) on taurine content of milk and milk production of Holstein dairy cows. In experiment 1, FM or FMD was supplemented at 0, 1, 3 and 5% of dry matter intake (DMI), respectively. Taurine concentration of 3% FM and 5% FMD treatment were increased by 14% and 220/0, respectively. The 5% FM treatment had a negative effect on milk yield and FM and FMD treatments had no significant or consistent effects on milk fat, protein, lactose, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and somatic cell count (SCC). In experiment 2, Lcystine or MHA was supplemented at 0, 1, 3, and 5g or ml/d along with 5% FMD, respectively. Milk yield decreased at 3 and 5g or ml Lcystine or MHA supplementation along with 5% FMD. Fat and lactose in milk were not significantly affected by treatments. However, milk protein level increased significantly in the 5 ml HMA with 5% FMD treatment. SCC decreased significantly in 1ml MHA with 5% FMD supplemented treatment but increased in 5g Lcystine with 5% FMD and 5 ml MHA with 5% FMD treatments. Increase of milk taurine concentration of L'cystine with 5% FMD treatments was not significant but those of MHA with 5% FMD treatments were significantly higher than the control. The highest increase of milk taurine concentration was 65% shown in 1 ml MHA with 5% FMD treatment. In experiment 3, 5% FM, 5% FM+3% molasses or 5% FM+3% molasses+l ml MHA was supplemented to the based TMR diet. The molasses treatments (5% FM+3% molasses and 5% FM+3% molasses+l ml MHA) showed significantly higher milk taurine content than the 5% FM treatment. The molasses treatments significantly reduced MUN but increased SCC. It was concluded that FMD is more effective than FM in enriching taurine in milk. Maximum taurine enrichment (65%) in the milk was obtained by supplementation of 5% FMD/DM1+1 ml MHA/d/cow. Molasses supplementation to 5% FM diet increased milk taurine content. However, MHA supplementation in dairy cows increased ruminal escape, gastrointestinal absorption and response of serum methionine.

Keywords

Feather meal;Feather meal digest;MHA;Molasses;Taurine;Milk composition;Dairy cows

References

  1. Kim, E. S., Kim, J. S. and Moon, H. K. 1999. Taurine contents in commercial milks, meats and seafoods. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 28(1):16-21
  2. Agostoni, C., Carratu, B., Boniglia, C., Riva, E. and Sanzini, E. 2000. Free amino acid content in standard infant formulas: comparison with human milk. Journal of the Amerian College of Nutrition. 4:434-438
  3. AOAC. 1990. Official method of analysis 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington D. C.
  4. Baker, L. D., Ferguson, J. D. and Chalupa, W. 1995. Responses in urea and true protein of milk to different protein feeding schemes for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 78:2424-2434 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76871-0
  5. Belasco, I. J. 1972. Stability of methionine hydroxy analog in rumen fluid and its conversion in vitro to methionine by calf liver and kidney J. Dairy Sci. 55:353-357 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(72)85496-1
  6. Belasco, I. J. 1980. Fate of carbon 14 labelled methionine hydroxy analog and methionine in the lactating dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 63:775-784 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)83006-2
  7. Canole, F. J., Muller, L. D., McCahon, H. A. Whitsel, T. J., Varga, G. A. and Lormore, M. J. 1990. Dietary fat and ruminally protected amino acids for high producing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 73:135-141 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78656-0
  8. Ferguson, J. D., Blanchard, T. L., Hoshall, D. and Chalupa, W. 1986. High rumen degradable protein as a possible cause of infertility in a dairy herd. J. Dairy Sci. 69(Suppl. 1):120.(Abst.)
  9. Gaull, G. E. 1982. Taurine in the nutrition of the human infant. Acta. Paediatr. Scand. 296:38-40
  10. Hayes, K. C., Carey, R. E. and Schmidt, S. Y. 1975. Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat. Science 188:949-951 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1138364
  11. Harris, B. Jr. and Staples, C. R. 1992. Animal protein by-product feedstuffs for dairy cattle. Dairy Production Guide, DS 34
  12. Harris, B. JR., Dorminey, D. E., Smith, W. A., Van Horn, H. H. and Wilcox, C. J. 1992. Effects of feather meal at two protein concentrations and yeast culture on production parameters in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:3524-3530 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)78128-4
  13. Harris, P. M. and Lee, J. 1999. Natural enhancement of nutritionally significant amino acids in milk. Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 336:51-55
  14. Huxtable, R. and Bressler, R. 1974. Taurine concentrations in congestive heart failure. Science 184:1187-1188 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.184.4142.1187
  15. Huxtable, R. J. 1992. Physiological actions of taurine. Physiol. Rev. 72:101-163
  16. Ikuyama, S., Okajima, T., Kato, K. I. and Ibayashi, H. 1988. Effect of taurine on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in rats: Possible interaction with opoid peptidergic system. Life sci. 43:807-812 https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(88)90506-1
  17. Jacobsen, J. G. and Smith, L. H. 1968. Biochemistry and physiology of taurine derivatives. Physiol. Rev. 48:424-511
  18. John, A. T., Vitor, S. and Catherine, J. W. 1995. Review: The In vivo and In vitro protective properties of taurine. Gen. Pharmac. Vol. 26:453-462 https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-3623(94)00203-Y
  19. Koenig, K. M., Rode, L. M., Knight, C. D. and McCullough, P. R. 1999. Ruminal escape, gastrointestinal absorption and response of serum methionine to supplementation of liquid methionine hydroxy analog in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:355-361 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75242-2
  20. Lampson, W. G., Kramer, J. H. and Schaffer, S. W. 1983. Potentiation of the actions of insulin by taurine. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 61:457-463 https://doi.org/10.1139/y83-070
  21. Li, J., Foote, R. H. and Simkin, M. 1993. Development of rabbit zygotes cultured in protein free medium with catalase, taurine, or superoxide dismutase. Bio. Reprod. 49:33-37 https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod49.1.33
  22. Loest, C. A., Titgemeyer, E. C., Drouillard, J. S., Coetzer, C. M., Hunter, R. D., Bindel, D. J., Lambert, B. D. 2002. Supplemental betaine and peroxide treated feather meal for finishing cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2234-2240
  23. Moss, B. R. and Holliman, J. L. 1990. Evaluation of feather meal as a protein source for lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 73 (Suppl. 1):265 (Abstr.)
  24. National Research Council. 1995. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle 7th Rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC
  25. Park, T., Chung, E. J., Um, Y. S., Moon, S. J. and Lee, Y. C. 1998. Taurine concentrations are closely associated with fatty acids concentrations in breast milk from Koreans. Kor. J. Nutr., 30:88-95
  26. Park, T. S. 2001. Taurine: Its physiological roles and nutritional significance. 34(5):597-607
  27. Park, T. S., Lee K., Um Y. 1998. Dietary taurine supplementation reduces plasma and liver cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Nutr. Res. 18(9):1559-1571 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(98)00130-4
  28. Patterson, J. A. and Kung, Jr. L. 1988. Metabolism of D, L-methionine and methionine analogs by rumen microorganisms. J. Dairy Sci. 71:3292-3301 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79934-8
  29. Rassin, D. K., Sturman, J. A. and Gaull, G. E. 1978. Taurine and other free amino acids in milk of man and other mammals. Early Hum. Dev. 2:1-13 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3782(78)90048-8
  30. Roseler, D. K., Ferguson, J. D., Sniffen, C. J. and Herrema, J. 1993. Dietary protein degradability effects on plasma and milk urea nitrogen and milk non protein nitrogen in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:525-534 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77372-5
  31. Salsbury, R. L., Marvil, D. K., Woodmansee, C. W. and Haenlein, G. F. W. 1971. Utilization of methionine and methionine hydroxy analog by rumen microorganisms in vitro. J. Dairy Sci. 54:390-396 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(71)85850-2
  32. SAS User's Guide: Statistics, release. 8.1 version Edition, 2000. SAS Inst. Cary, NC
  33. Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H. 1981. Principles and procedures of statistics, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York
  34. Trachtman, H., Futterweit, S. and Bienkowski, R. S. 1993. Taurine prevents glucose-induced lipid peroxidation and increased collagen production in cultured rat mesangial cells. Biochem Biophys. Res. Commun. 191:759-765 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1993.1282
  35. Uchida, K., Mandebvu, P., Ballard, C. S., Sniffen, C. J. and Carter, M. P. 2003. Effect of feeding methionine supplements with different rumen escape values on performance of high producing dairy cows in early lactation. J. Anim Feed & Tech. 107:1-14 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00125-1
  36. Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. D. and Lewis, B. A. 1991. Methods for dietary, fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  37. Wester, T. J., Vazquez-Anon, M., Parker, D., Dibner, J., Calder, A. G. and Lobley, G. E. 2000. Synthesis of methionine (Met) from 2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (HMB) in growing lambs. J. Dairy Sci. 83 (Suppl.l ), 269 (Abstract)
  38. Worden, J. A. and Stipanuk M. H. 1985. A comparison by species, age and sex of cystein sulfonate decarboxylase activity and taurine concentration in the liver and brain of animals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 82B 2:233-239
  39. Yan, C. C., Bravo, E. and Cantafora, A. 1992. Effect of taurine levels on liver lipid metabolism: an in vivo study in the rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol & Med 202:88-96
  40. Zunin, P. and Evangelisti, F. 1999. Determination of free amino acids in infant formulas. International Dairy Journal 9:653-656 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(99)00136-3
  41. Blum, J. W., Bruckmaier, R. M. and Jans, F. 1999. Rumen-protected methionine fed to dairy cows: Bioavailability and effects on plasma amino acid pattern and plasma metabolite and insulin concentrations. J. Dairy. Sci., 82:1991-1998 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75435-4
  42. Pion, P. D., Kittleson M. D., Rogers Q. R. and Morris, J. G. 1987. Myocardial failure in cats associated with low plasma taurine: a reversible cardiomyopathy. Science 237:764-767 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3616607