New Nutritional Concepts of Vitamins and Minerals

비타민과 무기질의 새로운 영양학적 의미

  • Youn, Hee-Shang (Department of Pediatrics, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine)
  • 윤희상 (경상대학교 의과대학 소아과학교실)
  • Received : 2005.11.16
  • Accepted : 2005.11.18
  • Published : 2005.12.15

Abstract

Nowadays, the nutritional deficits are rarely seen in Korea. However, an increased availability of the highly palatable energy dense, nutrient-poor foods increases the risks of obesity and deficits of vitamins and minerals in the general population. Also, optimum intake of vitamins and minerals, which varies with age and genetic back ground, might not suffice the poor, young, obese, and elderly people. Young girls and individuals participating in weight reductions and aesthetic components are prone to micronutrient deficiencies because they restrict food intake and specific micronutrient rich foods. An inadequate intake of vitamins or minerals is associated with reduced physical performance and exercise capacity, increased obesity, decreased cognitive function, increased DNA damages such as single- and double-stranded breaks or oxidative DNA lesions, and accelerated aging process and increased neuronal damages with mitochondrial oxidative decay. Most of these deleterious effects of the deficit could be prevented by a one tablet of multivitamins with a good balanced diet. High dose B vitamins are frequently administered to overcome the metabolic inadequacy to the people with the less functional enzymes with increased Km values for their coenzymes due to the single gene mutation or due to the single nucleotide polymorphisms. And some certain antioxidant vitamins are also used in large quantities to overcome the oxidative stress and to repair the damages. In this review, new nutritional concepts of some vitamins and minerals, which are widely used and useful for the children, will be discussed.

References

  1. Ames BN, Atamna H, Killilea DW. Mineral and vitamin deficiencies can accelerate the mitochondrial decay of aging. Mol Aspects Med 2005;26:363-78 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2005.07.007
  2. Ames BN. A role for supplements in optimizing health : the metabolic tune-up. Arch Biochem Biophys 2004;423:227-34 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2003.11.002
  3. Ames BN. DNA damage from micronutrient deficiencies is likely to be a major cause of cancer. Mutat Res 2001;18; 475:7-20
  4. Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, editors. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 17th ed. Philadelphia : Saunders, 2003:178-90
  5. Benton D. Micro-nutrient supplementation and the intelligence of children. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2001;25:297-309 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7634(01)00015-X
  6. Food and nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, Folic acid. Dietary Reference Intakes : Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press; 1998: 193-305
  7. Gyeongsang National University Helicobacter pylori Research Center. Collection of monographs(1988-2000)
  8. Higdon J. An evidence-based approach to vitamins and minerals : Health Implications and Intake Recommendations. New York : Thieme, 2003
  9. Kant AK. Consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods by adult Americans : nutritional and health implications. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:929-36
  10. Lukaski HC. Vitamin and mineral status : effects on physical performance. Nutrition 2004;20:632-44 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.001
  11. Ruxton CH, Reed SC, Simpson MJ, Millington KJ. The health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids : a review of the evidence. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004;17:449-59 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-277X.2004.00552.x
  12. Sauberlich HE, Machlin LJ, editors. Beyond deficiency : New views on the function and health effects of vitamins. New York : New York Academy of Sciences, 1992
  13. Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, editors. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999
  14. Wlodek D, Gonzales M. Decreased energy levels can cause and sustain obesity. J Theor Biol 2003;225:33-44 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5193(03)00218-2
  15. Youn HS. Antioxidant nutrition in children. Korean J Pediatr 2004;47(9 Suppl 3):S559-S576
  16. Ziegler E, Filer LJ, Jr., editors. Present knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. Washington D.C. : International Life Sciences Institute, 1996