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Curcumin Derivatives Inhibit the Formation of Jun-Fos-DNA Complex Independently of their Conserved Cysteine Residues

  • Park, Chi-Hoon (Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Ju-Hyung (Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Seoul National University) ;
  • Yang, Chul-Hak (Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Seoul National University)
  • Published : 2005.07.31

Abstract

Curcumin, a major active component of turmeric, has been identified as an inhibitor of the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1). Recently, it was also found that curcumin and synthetic curcumin derivatives can inhibit the binding of Jun-Fos, which are the members of the AP-1 family, to DNA. However, the mechanism of this inhibition by curcumin and its derivatives was not disclosed. Since the binding of Jun-Fos dimer to DNA can be modulated by redox control involving conserved cysteine residues, we studied whether curcumin and its derivatives inhibit Jun-Fos DNA binding activity via these residues. However, the inhibitory mechanism of curcumin and its derivatives, unlike that of other Jun-Fos inhibitors, was found to be independent of these conserved cysteine residues. In addition, we investigated whether curcumin derivatives can inhibit AP-1 transcriptional activity in vivo using a luciferase assay. We found that, among the curcumin derivatives examined, only inhibitors shown to inhibit the binding of Jun-Fos to DNA by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) inhibited AP-1 transcriptional activity in vivo. Moreover, RT-PCR revealed that curcumin derivatives, like curcumin, downregulated c-jun mRNA in JB6 cells. These results suggest that the suppression of the formation of DNA-Jun-Fos complex is the main cause of reduced AP-1 transcriptional activity by curcuminoids, and that EMSA is a suitable tool for identifying inhibitors of transcriptional activation.

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