Influence of Feeding β-Cyclodextrin to Laying Hens on the Egg Production and Cholesterol Content of Egg Yolk

  • Park, B.S. (Animal Life Science Program, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kang, H.K. (Animal Life Science Program, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Jang, A. (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2004.07.12
  • Accepted : 2005.01.15
  • Published : 2005.06.01


The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary $\beta$-cyclodextrin ($\beta$-CD) on egg laying performance and cholesterol content of egg yolk. Feed intake, egg production and egg weight varied slightly, but not significantly, between hens fed either a control diet or a diet containing one of an increasing series of $\beta$-CD concentrations (2%, 4% or 6%). However, feed intake, egg production and egg weight were all lower in the hens fed on 8% $\beta$-CD (p<0.05). No difference in haugh unit values, egg yolk color and egg shell thickness were found between the different treatments. The cholesterol content of egg yolks (mg/g yolk) was significantly decreased by 0.71, 2.98, 4.00 and 4.24 mg in eggs from hens maintained on 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% $\beta$-CD, respectively (p<0.05). These observations indicate that appropriate supplementation of diets with $\beta$-CD can reduce the cholesterol content of eggyolks, thus raising the prospect of the production of a healthier functional food.


$\beta$-Cyclodextrin;Egg Production;Egg Quality;Egg Yolk;Cholesterol


Supported by : Korea Research Foundation


  1. Catala, I., C. Juste, N. Boehler, J. Ferezou, M. Andre, M. Riottot, C. Cutton, H. Lafront, F. Bornet and T. Corring. 2000. Cholesterol crystallization in gall-bladder bile of pigs given cholesterol-$\beta$-cyclodextrin-enriched diets with either casein or soybean concentrate as protein sources. Br. J. Nutr. 83:411-420.
  2. Einarsson, K., S. Ericsson, S. Ewerth, E. Reihner, M. Rudling, D. Stahlberg and B. Angelin. 1991. Bile acid sequestrants: mechanisms of action on bile acid and cholesterol metabolism. Eur. J. Clin. Pharm. 40(suppl 1):553-558.
  3. Horikoshi, K. 1979. Production and industrial applications of betacyclodextrin. Process Biochem. Int. 14:26-30.
  4. Lien, T., C. Wu and J. Lu. 2003. Effects of cod liver oil and chromium picolinate supplements on the serum traits, egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol content in laying hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(8):1177-1181.
  5. Olivier, P., F. Verwaerde and A. R. Hedges. 1991. Subchronic toxicity of orally administered beta-cyclodextrin in rats. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 10:407-419.
  6. Szejtli, J. 1982. Types, formation and structures of inclusion complexes. In: $\beta$-cyclodextrins and their inclusion complex. Budapest Akademial Kiado 11:93-108.
  7. USDA. 1989. Composition of food, dairy and egg products, rawprocessed- prepared. USDA Agric. Handbook 8-1(Suppl.); USDA Washington, DC.
  8. Smith, D. M., A. C. Awad, M. R. Bennick and J. L. Gill. 1995. Cholesterol reduction in liquid egg using $\beta$-cyclodextrin. J. Food Sci. 60:691-694.
  9. Weggemans, R. M., P. L. Zock and M. B. Katan. 2001. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans: a metaanalysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73:885-891.
  10. Chowdhury, S. R., S. D. Chowdhury and T. K. Smith. 2002. Effect of dietary garlic on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens. Poult. Sci. 81:1856-1862.
  11. Ferezou, J., M. Riottot, C. Serougne, C. Cohen-solal, I. Catala, C. Alguier, M. Parguet, C. Juste, H. Lafont, D. Mathe, T. Corring and C. Lutton. 1997. Hypocholesterolemic action of $\beta$-cyclodextrin and its effects on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a cholesterol-enrich diet. J. Lipid Res. 38:86-100.
  12. Ulbrecht, F. and H. Reich. 1992. Gas chromatographic determination of cholesterol in processed foods. Food Chem. 43:387-391.
  13. Naber, E. C. 1983. Nutrient and drug effects on cholesterol metabolism in the laying hen. Federation Proc. 42:2486-2493.
  14. Kehui, O., W. Wenjun, X. Mingshen, J. Yan and S. Xinchen. 2004. Effects of different oils on the production performances and polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol level of yolk in hens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(6):843-847.
  15. Palca, J. 1990. Getting to the heart of the cholesterol debate. Sci. 247:1170-1171.
  16. Park, B. S. 2003. The biological effect of $\beta$-cyclodextrin on antithrombotic activity and plasma lipid metabolism in rats. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. Tech. 45:199-210.
  17. Riottot, M., P. Olivier, A. Huet, J. J. Caboche, M. Parguet, J. Khallou and C. Lutton. 1993. Hypolipidemic effect of $\beta$-cyclodextrin in the hamster and in the genetically hypercholesterolemic rico rat. Lipids. 28:181-188.
  18. National Research Council. 1994. Nutrients requirements of poultry. 9th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.
  19. Shekelle, R. B. and J. Stamler. 1989. Dietary cholesterol and ischaemic heart disease. Lanset. 1:1177-1178.
  20. Punita, A. and C. Anurag. 2000. Effect of feeding crude red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and grain amaranth (Ameranthus paniculatus) to hens on total lipid, cholesterol, PUFA levels and acceptability of eggs. Plant Food for Human Nutr. 55:147-157.
  21. Sheridan, A. K. and M. C. Randall. 1977. Heterosis for egg production in white Leghorn-Australop cross. Br. Poult. Sci. 18:69-77.
  22. Favier, M. L., C. Remesy, C. Moundras and C. Demigne. 1995. Effect of cyclodextrin on plasma lipids and cholesterol metabolism in the rat. Metabolism. 44:200-206.
  23. Fukushima, M., S. Akiba and M. Nakano. 1996. Comparative hypocholesterolemic effect of six vegetable oils in cholesterolfed rat. Lipids. 31:415-419.
  24. Rao, P., S. U. Kumar, D. N. Rao and S. Divakar. 2000. Optimization of digestion parameters for the elimination of residual $\beta$-cyclodextrin used for cholesterol reduction in egg using glucoamylase. Eur. Food Res. Tech. 210:231-236.
  25. Elkin, R. G., E. J. Furumoto and C. R. Thomas. 2003. Assessment of egg nutrient compositional changes and residue in eggs, tissues, and excreta follow in oral administration of atorvastatin to laying hens. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:3473-3481.
  26. Hargis, P. S. 1988. Modifying egg yolk cholesterol in the domestic fowl: A review. World's Poult. Sci. J. 44:17-29.
  27. SAS. 2000. SAS(R) User's Guide: Statistics. Version 8th Edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  28. Lesson, S. and J. D. Summers. 1991. Commercial poultry nutrition. Canada NIH 6N8. pp. 77-148.
  29. Nordskog, A. W. and O. Cotterill. 1953. Breeding for egg quality. Poult. Sci. 32:1051-1054.
  30. Birrenkott, G., G. E. Brockenfelt, M. Owens and E. Haplin. 2000. Yolk and blood cholesterol levels fed a garlic-supplemented diet. Poult. Sci. 79(Suppl.1):75.
  31. Folch, L., M. Lees and G. H. A. Sloane-Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-507.
  32. Balasubramaniam, S., J. L. Goldstein, J. R. Faust, G. Y. Brunsched and M. S. Brown. 1997. Lipoprotein-mediated regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and cholesterol ester metabolism in the adrenal gland of the rat. J. Biol. Chem. 252:1771-1782.
  33. Flourie, B., C. Molis, L. Achour, H. Dupas, C. Hatat and J. C. Rambaud. 1993. Fate of $\beta$-cyclodextrin in the human intestine. J. Nutr. 123:676-680.
  34. News week. 1992. Betting on a guilt-free egg. Newsweek. April 6:46.
  35. Yen, G. C. and C. J. Chen. 2000. Effects of fractionation and the refining process of lard on cholesterol removal by $\beta$-cyclodextrin. J. Food Sci. 65:622-624.

Cited by

  1. Effect of Dietary Fresh Water Algae, Chlorella Supplementation on Egg Quality and Fatty Acid in Organic Laying Hens vol.26, pp.3, 2018,
  2. Effect of Beta Cyclodextrin on the Reduction of Cholesterol in Ewe’s Milk Manchego Cheese vol.23, pp.7, 2018,
  3. Dietary β-cyclodextrin reduces the cholesterol levels in meats and backfat of finishing pigs vol.88, pp.5, 2008,