Characteristics of Sediment Compositions and Cs Adsorption on Marine Sediment near Wuljin Nuclear Powerplant

울진원전 근해 해저 퇴적물의 구성성분 및 방사성 Cs 흡착 특성

  • Kim Yeongkyoo (Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim Kyung-Mi (Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Jung Hee-Jin (Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kang Hee-Dong (Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim Wan (Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Doh Si-Hong (Department of Physics, Pukoung National University) ;
  • Kim Do-Sung (Division of Science Education, Daegu University)
  • Published : 2005.12.01

Abstract

Mineralogical composition, $^{137}Cs$ activity, total organic carbon (TOC), and particle size of marine sediments near Wuljin Nuclear Powerplant were analyzed and the relationships among those components were investigated. The particle sizes of sediments were equivalent to sand size and in the range of $-0.48\~3.6\;Md\phi$. TOC contents and $^{137}Cs$ activities were in the range of $0.06\~1.75\%$ and minimum detectable activity (MDA) $\~4.0Bq/kg-dry$ with the average value of $1.15{\pm}0.62$ Bq/kg-dry, respectively. The sediments in study area were characterized by large particle size and small TOC contents, and $^{137}Cs$ activity compared with other marine sediments. The main mineral components were quartz and feldspar (albite, microcline, and small amount of orthoclase) with small amount of pyroxene, calcite, hornblende. Minerals with $10{\AA}$ XRD peak (mainly biotite) and chlorite were also identified. Among those minerals, biotite shows the linear relationship with $^{137}Cs$ content probably due to the frayed edge site (FES) on biotite or small amount of mixed illite. However, TOC content shows most linear relationship with $^{137}Cs$ content because no significant amount of clay minerals, which can adsorb significant amount of Cs, were observed in the study area, indicating that the distribution of $^{137}Cs$ in this study area was more significantly affected by the TOC content than mineral composition.

References

  1. Commans, R.N.J., Haller, M. and de Prefer, P. (1991) Kinetics of cesium sorption on illite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 1157-1164 https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(92)90053-L
  2. Francis, C.W. and Brinkeley, ES. (1976) Prefererntial adsorption of 137Cs to micaceous minerals in contaminated freshwater sediment. Nature, 260, 511-513 https://doi.org/10.1038/260511a0
  3. Hong, G.H., Lee, S.H., Kim, S.H. and Chung, CS. (1999) Sedimentary fluxes of $^{90}Sr, ^{137}Cs, ^{239+240}Pu$ and $^{210}Pb$ in the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Sci. Total Environ., 237/238, 225-240 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00138-2
  4. Keil, R.G., Tsamakis, E., Fuh, C.B., Giddings, J.C. and Hedges, J.I. (1994) Mineralogical and textural controls on the organic composition of coastal marine sediments: hydrodynamic separation using SPLITT-frac-tion. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58, 879-893 https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(94)90512-6
  5. Lee, M.H. and Lee, C.W. (2000) Association of fallout-derived $^{137}Cs,\;^{90}Sr$ and $^{239,240}Pu$ with natural organic substances in soils. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 47, 253-262 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(99)00033-8
  6. Sawhney, B.L. (1972) Selective adsorption and fixation of cations by clay mienrals: A review. Clays Clay Mineral, 20, 93-100 https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.1972.0200208
  7. Eberl, D.D. (1980) Alkali cation selectivity and fixation by clay mienrals. Clays Clay Mineral, 28, 161-172 https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.1980.0280301
  8. Kerpen, W. (1986) Bioavailability of the radionuclides cesium-137, cobalt-60, manganese-54 and strontium-85 in various soils as a function of their soil properties. Methods applied and first results. In Application of Distribution Coefficients to Radiological Assessment Models (ed. T.H. Sibley and C. Mytte-naere). Elsevier, 322-332
  9. Bradbury, M.H. and Baeyens, B. (2000) A generalised sorption model for the concentration dependent uptake of caesium by argillaceous rocks. J. Contam. Hydrol., 42, 141-163 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7722(99)00094-7
  10. Johnson-Pyrtle, A. and Scott, M.R. (2001) Distribution of $^{137}Cs$ in the Lena River Estuary-Laptev Sea System. Mar. Poll. Bull, 42, 10, 912-926 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00237-X
  11. Dumat, C. and Staunton, S. (1999) Reduced adsorption of caesium on clay minerals caused by various humic substances. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 46, 187-200 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(98)00125-8
  12. Tamura, T. and Jacobs. (1960) Structural implications in cesium sorption. Health Phys., 2, 391-398 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-195910000-00009
  13. Brouwer, E., Baeyens, B., Maes, A. and Cremers, A. (1983) Cesium and rubidium ion equilibria in Mite clay. J. Phys. Chem., 87, 1213-1219 https://doi.org/10.1021/j100230a024
  14. Johnson-Pyrtle, A., Scott, M.R., Laing, T.E. and Smol, J.P. (2000) $^{137}Cs$ distribution and geochemistry of Lena River(Siberia) drainage basin lake sediments. Sci. Total Environ., 255, 145-159 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00466-6
  15. Dumat, C, Quiquampoix, H. and Staunton, S. (2000) Adsorption of cesium by synthetic clay-organic matter complexes: Effect of the nature of organic polymers. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34., 2985-2989 https://doi.org/10.1021/es990657o
  16. Hillier, S. (2000) Accurate quantitative analysis of clay and other minerals in sandstones by XRD: comparison of a Rietveld and a reference intensity ratio (RIR) method and the importance of sample preparation. Clay Minerals, 35, 291-302 https://doi.org/10.1180/000985500546666
  17. Poinssot C, Baeyens, B. and Bradbury, M.H. (1999) Experimental and modelling studies of Cs sorption on illite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63. 3217-3227 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(99)00246-X
  18. Rigol, A., Vidal, M. and Rauret, G. (2002) Overview of the effect of organic matter on soil-radicaesium interaction: implications in root uptake. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 58, 191-216 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(01)00066-2
  19. Takenaka, C, Onda, Y. and Hamajima, Y. (1998) Distribution of cesium-137 in Japanese forest soils: correlation with the contents of organic carbon. Sci. Total Environ., 222, 193-199 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00305-2
  20. Staunton, S. and Roubaud, M. (1997) Adsorption of $^{137}Cs$ on montmorillonite and illite: Effect of charge compensating cation, ionic strength, concentration of Cs, K and fulvic acid. Clays Clay Mineral, 45, 251-260 https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.1997.0450213
  21. De Preter, R (1990) Radiocesium retention in the aquatic, terrestrial and urban environment: A quantitative and unifying analysis. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Leuven
  22. Nikolova, I., Johanson, K.I. and Clegg. S. (2000) The accumulation of 137Cs in the biological compartment of forest soils. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 47, 319-326 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(99)00048-X
  23. Chung, EH. (1974) Quantitative interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns of mixtures - I. Mztrix flushing method for quantitative multicomponent analysis. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 7, 516-531
  24. Kim, Y., Cho, S., Kang, H.D., Kim, W, Lee, H.R., Doh, S.H., Kim, K, Yun, S.G., Kim, D.S. and Jeong, G.Y. (2006) Radiocesium reaction with illite and organic matter in marine sediment. Mar. Poll. Bull., in press
  25. Baskaran, M., Asbill, S., Schwantes, J., Santschi, K, Champ, M.A., Brooks, J.M., Adkinson, D. and Makeyev, V (2000) Concentrations of $^{137}Cs$, $^{239,240}Pu$ and $^{210}Pb$ in sediment samples from the Pechora Sea and biological samples from the Ob, Yenisey Rivers and Kara Sea. Mar. Poll. Bull., 40, 830-838 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00078-3
  26. Sawhney, B.L. (1970) Potassium and cesium ion selectivity in relation to clay mineral structure. Clays Clay Mineral, 18, 47-52 https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.1970.0180106