Reducing Phosphorus Release from Paddy Soil by Coal Ash and Phospho-Gypsum Mixture

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon (Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lee, Yong-Bok (Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lee, Hyub (Department of Crops Biotechnology, Jinju National University) ;
  • Ha, Byung-Yun (Product Development Team, Namhae Chemical Co. Ltd.) ;
  • Kim, Pil-Joo (Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University)
  • Published : 2005.03.31


As a silicate source to rice, a coal ash was selected and mixed with phosphor-gypsum (50:50, wt $wt^{-1}$) to reduce the potential of boron toxicity and to supply calcium element. We expected that high con tent of calcium in this mixture might convert water-soluble phosphorus to less soluble forms and then reduce the release of soil phosphorus to surface runoff. The mixture was applied with the rate of 0, 20, 40, and 60 Mg $ha^{-1}$ in paddy soil (Nagdong series, a somewhat excessively drained loamy fine sand) in Daegok, Jinju, Korea The mixture reduced significantly water-soluble phosphorus (W-P) in the surface soils by shifting from W-P and Fe-P to Ca-P and Al-P during whole rice cultivation. In contrast with W-P, plant available phosphorus increased significantly with the mixture application due to high content of phosphorus and silicate in the mixture. The mixture of coal ash and phosphor-gypsum (50:50, wt $wt^{-l}$) would be a good alternative to reduce a phosphorus export in rice paddy soil together with increasing rice yields.


  1. Cha, D. W., Lee, H. S., Jung. J. H. 1999. Production and composition of the power plant coal ash in Korea. Proc. Agricultural Utilization of Fly Ash Symposium Gyeongsang National University, Chinju, 1-23 (in Korean with English summary)
  2. Lee, Y. B., Ha, H. S., lee, C. H. Ko, B. G., Kim, P. J 2004. Improving Rice Productivity and Soil Quality by Fly Ash-Gypsum Mixture. 1. Increase of Rice Productivity in Paddy Soils. Chemosphere (in submission)
  3. Vollenweider, R. A., Krekes, R. R. 1982. Eutrophication of waters: monitoring, assessment and control. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris. Dean, L. A 1949. Fixation of soil phosphorus. Adv. Agron. 1. 391-411
  4. Hingston, F. J., Raupach, M. 1967. The reaction between monosilicic acid and aluminum hydroxide. I. Kinetics of adsorption of silicic acid by aluminum hydroxide. Aust. J. Soil Res., 5, 295-309
  5. Foy, R. H., Withers, P. J. A. 1995. The Contribution of Agricultural Phosphorus to Euthrophication. fertilizer Society, Proceedings No. 365. pp. 32
  6. Burkholder, J. M., Glasgow, H. B. Jr. 1997. Pfiesteria piscicida and other Pfiesteria-Iike dinoflagellates: Behavior, impacts, and environmental controls. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42:1052-1075
  7. RDA (Rural Development Administration, Korea). 1988. Methods of Soil Chemical Analysis. National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, RDA, Suwon (in Korean)
  8. Sekiya, K. 1983: Phosphorus. In Methods of Soil Analysis (Dojou Youbu Bunsekihou) (ed, Min. Agric. Forest. Fish. pp. 225-257. Youkendou, Tokyo (in Japanese)
  9. Bohn, H, McNeal, G. O'connor, G. 1979. Soil Chemistry. A Wiley-Interscience Publication
  10. Jepson, W. B., Jeffs, D. G., Ferris, A. P. 1976. The adsorption of silica on gibbsite and its relevance to the kaolinite surface. J. Colloid Interface. Sci., 5, 454-461
  11. Watanabe, M, Kato, N. 198.Research on the behavior of applied phosphorus fertilizer in soil. 1) Fractionation method of soil inorganic phosphorus compounds in soil. 2) Changes in phosphorus compounds in soil with time. Miscellany Publication of Fertilizer Research. Division, National Institute of Agriculture Science Service, 251, 1-31 (in Japanese)
  12. Lee, C. H., Park, C. Y., Park, K. D., Jeon, W. T., Kim, P. J. 2004. Long-term Effects of Fertilization on the Forms and Availability of Soil Phosphorus in Rice Paddy. Chemosphere (accepted)
  13. RDA. 2001: Survey report to fertilizer utilization situation in fanning fields. National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, RDA, Suwon, Korea. (in Korean)
  14. Coleman, N. T., Thomas, G. W. 1967. In: Pearson RW, Adams F, editors. The basic chemistry of soil acidity. Madison (WI): American Society of Agronomy, pp.142
  15. Lee, Y. B., Ha, H. S., Park, B. K., Cho, J. S., and Kim, P. J.: 2002. Effect of a fly ash and gypsum mixture on rice cultivation. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 48: 171-178
  16. Hingston, F. J., Posner, A. M., Quirk, J. P. 1972. Anion adsorption by goethite and gibbsite. I. The role of the proton in determining adsorption envelops. J. Soil Sci., 23, 177-192
  17. RDA. 1999. Fertilization Standard of Crop Plants. National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, RDA, Suwon. p. 148 (in Korean)
  18. Roy, A. C., Ali, M Y, Fox, R. L., Silva, J. A. 1971. influence of calcium silicate on phosphate solubility and availability in Hawaiian Iatosols, Proc. Int. Symp. On Soil Fertility Evaluation. New Delhi, 1, 757-765
  19. Sharpley, A N. 1995. Dependence of runoff P on extractable soil phosphorus. Journal of Environmental Quality 24: 920-926
  20. Sharpley, A. N., Daniel, T. C., Simi, J. T., Pate, D. H. 1996. Determining environmentally sound soil phosphorus levels. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 51: 160-166
  21. Lee, C. H. 2003. Effects of long-term fertilization on phosphorus turnover in paddy soil. MS. diss. Gyeongsang National University, Chinju, Korea