Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) Extract and Its Fractions

  • Lyu, Su-Yun (School of Pharmaceutical Science, Boots Science Building, University of Nottingham) ;
  • Moon, You-Sun (College of Natural Science, Seoul Women's University) ;
  • Park, Won-Bong (College of Natural Science, Seoul Women's University)
  • Published : 2005.09.01


The copper-containing enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the oxidation of tyrosine into dihydroxy phenylalanine (DOPA) and subsequently DOPAquinone. It is responsible, not only for the pigment melanin biosynthesis in human skin, but also for browning in foods. In the present study, tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Korean mistletoe extract and its fractions were investigated. As a result, both water and methanol (MeOn) extracts inhibited the tyrosinase activity. Among the fractions, the fraction eluted with $95\%$ MeOn significantly inhibited the tyrosinase activity. The fraction was further purified, and the purified fraction C strongly inhibited the enzyme activity up to $92\%$. In addition, water and methanol extracts exerted radical scavenging effects. The fractions eluted with $70\%\;MeOn\;and\;95\%$ Me on showed high radical scavenging activities. In conclusion, these results suggest that Korean mistletoe extract and its fractions might be useful for the treatment of various dermatological disorders such as epidermal hyperpigmentation and for improving food quality.


  1. Whitaker JR. 1995. Polyphenol oxidase. In Food enzymes, structure and mechanism. Wong DWS, ed. Chapman & Hall, NY, USA. p 271-307
  2. Seo SY, Sharma VK, Sharma N. 2003. Mushroom tyrosinase: Recent prospects. J Agric Food Chem 51: 2837-2853
  3. Friedman M. 1996. Food browning and its prevention: An overview. J Agric Food Chem 44: 631-653
  4. Sanchez-Ferrer A, Rodriguez-Lopez JN, Garcia-Canovas F, Garcia-Carmona F. 1995. Tyrosinase: A comprehensive review of its mechanism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1247: 1-11
  5. Mosher DB, Pathak MA, Fitzpatrick TB, Vitiligo A. 1983. Ethology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. In Dermatology in general medicine. Fitzpatrick TB, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, Freedberg IM, Austen KF, eds. Mcgraw-Hill, NY, USA. p 373-398
  6. Maeda K, Fukuda M. 1991. In vitro effectiveness of several whitening cosmetic components in human melanocytes. J Soc Cosmetic Chemists 42: 361-368
  7. Dooley TP. 1997. Topical skin depigmentation agents: Current products and discovery of novel inhibitors of melanogenesis. J Dermatol Treatment 8: 275-279
  8. Kubo I, Kinst-Hori I. 1999. Flavonols from saffron flower: Tyrosinase inhibitory activity and inhibition mechanism. J Agric Food Chem 47: 4121-4125
  9. Chen QX, Kubo I. 2002. Kinetics of mushroom tyrosinase inhibition by quercetin. J Agric Food Chem 50: 4108-4112
  10. No JK, Soung DY, Kim YJ, Shim KH, Jun YS, Rhee SH, Yokozawa T, Chung HY. 1999. Inhibition of tyrosinase by green tea components. Life Sci 65: 241-246
  11. Kim JH, Kang BH, Jeong JM. 2003. Antioxidant, antimutagenic and chemopreventive activities of a phytoextract mixture derived from various vegetables, fruits, and oriental herbs. Food Sci Biotechnol 12: 631-638
  12. Kim JA, Lee JM, Shin DB, Lee NH. 2004. The antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of phloro-tannins in Ecklonia cava. Food Sci Biotechnol 13: 476-480
  13. Ueda J, Saito N, Shimazu Y, Ozawa T. 1996. A comparison of scavenging abilities of antioxidants against hydroxyl radicals. Arch Biochem Biophysics 333: 377-384
  14. Wagner H, Feil B, Seligmann O, Petricic J, Kalogjera Z. 1986. Phenylpropanones and lignans of Viscum album cardioactive drugs. V Planta Medica 2: 102-104
  15. Ahn WY. 1995. Analysis of chemical constituents of saccharides and triterpenoids in the Korean native mistletoes. Mokchae Konghak 24: 27-33
  16. Fukunaga T, Kajikawa I, Nishiya K, Takeya K, Itokawa H. 1989. Studies on the constituents of the Japanase mistletoe Viscum album L. var. coloratum Ohwi grown on different trees and their antimicrobial and hypotensive properties. Chem Pharm Bull 37: 1543-1546
  17. Kong DY, Li HT, Luo SQ. 1990. Chemical constituents of Viscum coloratum VII. Isolation and structure of viscumneoside VII. Yaoxue Xuebao 258: 608-611
  18. Bussing A. 2000. Biological and pharmacological properties of Viscum album L.; From tissue flask to man. In Mistletoe, genus Viscum & other genera, Medicinal & Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles. Bussing A, ed. Harwood Academic Publishers, Netherland. p 45-60
  19. Lyu SY, Park SM, Choung BY, Park WB. 2000. Comparative study of Korean (Viscum album var. coloratum) and European mistletoes (Viscum album). Arch Pharm Res 23: 592-598
  20. Lyu SY, Park WB, Choi KH, Kim WH. 2001. Involvement of caspase-3 in apoptosis induced by Viscum album var. coloratum agglutinin in HL-60 cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65: 534-541
  21. Lyu SY, Moon YS, Kwon YJ, Joo HJ, Park WB. 2003. Inhibition of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) by Korean mistletoe (Viscum album var. coloratum) fractions. Nat Prod Sci 9: 278-285
  22. Kim DK. 2001. Antioxidative components from the aerial parts of Lactuca scariola L. Arch Pharm Res 24: 427-430
  23. Friedman M. 1996. Food browning and its prevention: An overview. J Agric Food Chem 44: 631-653
  24. Lyu SY, Choi SH, Park WB. 2002. Korean mistletoe lectin-induced apoptosis in hepatocarcinoma cells is associated with inhibition of telomerase via mitochondrial controlled pathway independent of p53. Arch Pharm Res 25: 93-101
  25. Briganti S, Camera E, Picardo M. 2003. Chemical and instrumental approaches to treat hyperpigmentation. Pigm Cell Res 16: 101-110
  26. Chen JS, Wei C, Rolle RS, Otwell WS, Balaban MO, Marshall MR. 1991. Inhibitory effect of kojic acid on some plant and crustacean polyphenol oxidases. J Agric Food Chem 39: 1396-1401
  27. Kahn V, Ben-Shalom N, Zakin V. 1997. Effect of kojic acid on the oxidation of N-acetyldopamine by mushroom tyrosinase. J Agric Food Chem 45: 4460-4465