N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and Non-NMDA Receptors are Involved in the Production and Maintenance of Nociceptive Responses by Intraplantar Injection of Bee Venom and Melittin in the Rat

  • Kim, Jae-Hwa (Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bundang Cha Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochun Cha University) ;
  • Shin, Hong-Kee (Deportment of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University)
  • Published : 2005.06.21


Whole bee venom (WBV) and its major component, melittin, have been reported to induce long-lasting spontaneous flinchings and hyperalgesia. The current study was designed to elucidate the peripheral and spinal mechanisms of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors by which intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of WBV and melittin induced nociceptive responses. Changes in mechanical threshold and flinching behaviors were measured after the injection of WBV (0.04 mg or 0.1 mg/paw) and melittin (0.02 mg or 0.05 mg/paw) into the mid-plantar area of a rat hindpaw. MK-801 and CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione disodium) were administered intrathecally (i.t. $10{\mu}g$) or i.pl.($15{\mu}g$) 15 min before or i.t. 60 min after i.pl. WBV and melittin injection. Intrathecal pre- and postadministration of MK-801 and CNQX significantly attenuated the ability of high dose WBV and melittin to reduce paw withdrawal threshold (PWT). In the rat injected with low dose, but not high dose, of WBV and melittin, i.pl. injection of MK-801 effectively suppressed the decrease of PWTs only at the later time-points, but the inhibitory effect of CNQX (i.pl.) was significant at all time-point after the injection of low dose melittin. High dose WBV- and melittin-induced spontaneous flinchings were significantly suppressed by i.t. administration of MK-801 and CNQX, and low dose WBV- and melittin-induced flinchings were significantly reduced only by intraplantarly administered CNQX, but not by MK-801. These experimental flinchings suggest that spinal, and partial peripheral mechanisms of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors are involved in the development and maintenance of WBV- and melittin-induced nociceptive responses.


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