Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Treatment on Microbial Growth and Qualities of Chicken Breast

  • Ko, Jong-Kwan ;
  • Ma, Yu-Hyun ;
  • Song, Kyung-Bin
  • Published : 2005.06.01


Chlorine dioxide $(ClO_2)$ treatment was evaluated for microbial growth inhibition and its effects on the quality of vacuum-packaged chicken breasts. Chicken breast samples were treated with 3, 50, and 100 ppm of $ClO_2$ solution, respectively. After $ClO_2$ treatment, chicken breast samples were individually vacuum-packaged and stored at $4^{\circ}C$, a typical storage temperature for meat and meat product, for 7 days. The vacuum-packaged chicken breasts treated with $ClO_2$ had significantly lower total bacteria, yeast and mold, total coliform, and Salmonella spp. were significantly reduced by $ClO_2$ treatment. $D_{10}-values$ of total bacteria count, yeast and mold, total coliform, and Salmonella spp. in vacuum-packaged chicken breasts was 93, 83, 85, and 50 ppm, respectively. The pH of vacuum-packaged chicken breasts decreased with increasing $ClO_2$ concentration. Thiobarbituric acid reacted substance (TBARS) values of vacuum-packaged chicken breasts increased during storage, regardless of $ClO_2$ concentration. $ClO_2$ treatment caused negligible changes in Hunter L, a, and b values in the vacuum-packaged chicken breasts. Sensory evaluation of the vacuum-packaged chicken breasts showed that there were no significant changes among the samples treated with various $ClO_2$ concentration. These results indicate that $ClO_2$ treatment could be useful in improving the microbial safety and quality of meat products.


chlorine dioxide;chicken;microbial growth;storage;quality


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Preliminary foodnet data on the incidence of infaction with pathogens transmitted commonly through food-selected sites, United states, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53: 338-343
  2. Dickens JA, Whitemore AD. 1995. The effects of extended chilling times with acetic acid on the temperature and microbiological quality of processed poultry carcasses. Poult Sci 74: 1044-1048
  3. Dorsa WJ, Cutter CN, Siragusa GR, Koohmaraie M. 1995. Microbial decontamination of beef and sheep carcasses by steam, hot water spray washes, and a steam-vaccum sanitizer. J Food Prot 59: 127-132
  4. Hardin MD, Acuff GR, Lucia LM, Oman JS, Savell JW. 1995. Comparison of methods for decontamination from beef carcasses surfaces. J Food Prot 58: 368-374
  5. Kim CR, Kim KH, Moon SJ, Kim YJ, Lee YK. 1998. Microbiological and physical quality of refrigerated chicken legs treated with acetic acid. Korean Food Sci Biotechnol 7: 13-17
  6. Jimenez SM, Salsi MS, Tiburzi MC, Rafaghelli RC, Tessi MA, Coutaz VR. 1997. Spoilage microflora in fresh chicken breast stored at $4^{\circ}C$: influence of packaging methods. J Appl Microbiol 83: 613-618
  7. Kim JY, Song KB. 2004. Effect of vacuum packaging on the microbiological profile of chilled chicken during storage. Agric Chem Biotechnol 47: 35-37
  8. Bailey JS, Lyon BG, Lyon CE, Windham WR. 2000. The microbiological profile of chilled and frozen chicken. J Food Prot 63: 1228-1230
  9. Snyder OP. 1998. Menu management and purchasing. In Food safety through qualiy assurance management. Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA. Chapter 6, p 11-13
  10. Kim CR. 1998. Microbiological evaluations on chicken carcasses during a commercial chicken processing and storage. J Fd Hyg Safety 13: 238-242
  11. Ahn DU, Olson DC, Jo C, Chen X, Wu C, Lee JI. 1998. Effect of muscle type, packaging, and irradiation on lipid oxidation, volatile production, and color in raw pork patties. Meat Sci 49: 29-39
  12. Jimenez-Villarreal JR, Pohlman FW, Johnson ZB, Brown Jr AH. 2003. Effect of chlorine dioxide, cetylpyridinium chlorine, lactic acid and trisodium phosphate on physical and sensory properties of ground beef. Meat Sci 65: 1055-1062
  13. Jimenez-Villarreal JR, Pohlman FW, Johnson ZB, Brown Jr AH, Baublits RT. 2003. The impact of single antimicrobial intervention treatment with cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phosphate, chlorine dioxide or lactic acid on ground beef lipid, instrumental color and sensory characteristics. Meat Sci 65: 977-984
  14. Boyette MD, Ritchie DF, Carballo SJ, Blankenship SM, Sanders DC. 1993. Chlorination and postharvest disease control. Hort Technol 3: 395-400
  15. Kraybill HF. 1978. Origin, classification and distribution of chemicals in drinking water with an assessment of their carcinogenic potential. In Water chlorination. Jolly RL, ed. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Vol 1, p 211-228
  16. Youm HJ, Jang JW, Kim KR, Kim HJ, Jeon EH, Park EK, Kim MR, Song KB. 2004. Effect of chemical treatment with citric acid or ozonated water on microbial growth and polyphenol oxidase activity in lettuce and cabbage. J Food Sci Nutr 9: 121-125
  17. Kim JM. 2001. Use of chlorine dioxide as a biocide in the food industry. Food Ind Nutr 6: 33-39
  18. Beuchat LR, Nail BV, Adler BB, Clavero MRS. 1998. Efficacy of spray application of chlorinated water in killing pathogenic bacteria on raw apples, tomatoes, and lettuce. J Food Prot 61: 1305-1311
  19. Kim JM, Maurice R, Marshall MR, Du WX, Steven Otwell W, Wei C-I. 1999. Determination of chlorate and chlorite and mutagenicity of seafood treated with aqueous chlorine dioxide. J Agric Food Chem 47: 3586-3591
  20. Gordon G. Kieffer RG. Rosenblatt DH. 1972. The chemistry of chlorine dioxide. In Progress in inorganic chemistry. Lippard SJ, ed. J. Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA. Vol 15, p 202-286
  21. Owusu-Yaw J, Toth JP, Wheeler WB, Wei C-I. 1990. Mutagenicity and identification of the reaction products of aqueous chlorine dioxide with Ltryptophan. J Food Sci 55: 1714-1719
  22. Pohlman FW, Stivarius MR, McElyea KS, Johnson ZB, Johnson MG. 2002. The effect of ozone, chlorine dioxide, cetylpyridinium chloride and trisodium phosphate as multiple anti-microbial interventions on microbiological, instrumental color, and sensory color and odor characteristics of ground beef. Meat Sci 60: 349-356
  23. Stivarius MR, Pohlman FW, McElyea KS, Apple JK. 2002. Microbial, instrumental color, and sensory color and odor characteristics of ground beef produced from beef trimmings treated with ozone or chlorine dioxide. Meat Sci 60: 299-305
  24. Tsai LS, Higby R, Schade J. 1995. Disinfection of poultry chiller water with chlorine dioxide: consumption and by product formation. J Agric Food Chem 43: 2768-2773
  25. Kim JM, Lee YS, O'Keefe SF, Wei C-I. 1997. Effect of chlorine dioxide treatment on lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition in salmon and red grouper fillets. J Am Oil Chem Soc 74: 539-542
  26. Kim JM, Du WX, Steven Otwell W, Marshall MR, Wei C-I. 1998. Nutrients in salmon and red grouper fillets as affected by chlorine dioxide (CI02) treatment. J Food Sci 63: 629-633
  27. Kim JM, Huang TS, Marshall MR, Wei C-I. 1999. Chlorine dioxide treatment of seafoods to reduce bacterial loads. J Food Sci 64: 1089-1093
  28. Andrews LS, Key AM, Martin RL, Grodner R, Park DL. 2002. Chlorine dioxide wash of shrimp and crawfish an alternative to aqueous chlorine. Food Microbiol 19: 261-267
  29. Du J, Han Y, Linton RH. 2003. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apple surfaces. Food Microbiol 20: 583-591
  30. Lee SY, Gray PM, Dougherty RH, Kang DH. 2004. The use of chlorine dioxide to control Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in aqueous suspension and on apples. Int J Food Microbiol 92: 121-127
  31. Taormina PJ, Beuchatn LR. 1999. Comparison of chemical treatment to eliminate enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. J Food Prot 62: 318-324
  32. Singh N, Singh RK, Bhunia AK. 2003. Sequential disinfection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated alfalfa seeds before and during sprouting using aqueous chlorine dioxide, ozonated water, and thyme essential oil. Lebensm Wiss Technol 36: 235-243
  33. Han Y, Linton RH, Nielsen SS, Nelson PE. 2002. A comparision of methods for recovery of chlorine dioxideinjured Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Food Microbiol 19: 201-210
  34. Youm HJ, Ko JK, Kim MR, Song KB. 2004. Inhibitory effect of aqueous chlorine dioxide in survival of Esherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in pure cell culture. Korean J Food Sci Technol 36: 514-517
  35. American Public Health Association. 1995. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th ed. Method 4-54. American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA
  36. American Public Health Association. 2001. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. American Public Health Association. Washington DC, USA
  37. Holley RA, Gariepy D, Delaquis P, Doyon G, Gagnon J. 1994. Static controlled atmosphere packaging retail ready pork. J Food Sci 59: 1296-1301
  38. Jimenez SM, Salsi MS, Tiburzi MC, Rafaghelli RC, Tessi MA, Pirovani ME. 1999. Combined use of acetic acid treatment and modified atmosphere packaging for extending the shelf-life of chilled chicken breast portions. J Appl Microbiol 87: 339-344
  39. Han Y, Linton RH, Nielsen SS, Nelson PE. 2000. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on surface-uninjured and -injured green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) by chlorine dioxide gas as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Food Microbiol 17: 643-655
  40. Singh N, Singh RK, Bhunia AK, Stroshine RL. 2002. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide, ozone, and thyme essential oil or sequential washing in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce and baby carrots. Lebensm Wiss Technol 35: 720-729
  41. Pohlman FW, Stivarius MR, McElyea KS, Johnson ZB, Johnson MG. 2002. Reduction of microorganisms in ground beef using multiple intervention technology. Meat Sci 61: 315-322
  42. Moore GS, Calabrese EJ, DiNardi SR, Tuthill RW. 1978. Potential health effect of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant in potable water supplies. Med Hypotheses 4: 481-496

Cited by

  1. The evaluation of combined chemical and physical treatments on the reduction of resident microorganisms and Salmonella Typhimurium attached to chicken skin vol.93, pp.1, 2014,
  2. Inhibitory effect of chlorine and ultraviolet radiation on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken breast and development of predictive growth models vol.93, pp.1, 2014,
  3. Ultraviolet-C Radiation on the Fresh Chicken Breast: Inactivation of Major Foodborne Viruses and Changes in Physicochemical and Sensory Qualities of Product vol.8, pp.4, 2015,
  4. Ultraviolet-C efficacy against a norovirus surrogate and hepatitis A virus on a stainless steel surface vol.211, 2015,
  5. Inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni in ready-to-eat sliced ham using UV-C irradiation vol.83, pp.4, 2009,
  6. Nondestructive assessment of freshness in packaged sliced chicken breasts using SW-NIR spectroscopy vol.44, pp.1, 2011,
  7. Enhancement of bactericidal effects of sodium hypochlorite in chiller water with food additive grade calcium hydroxide vol.79, pp.6, 2017,
  8. Effect of UV-C irradiation on the inactivation of inoculated pathogens and quality of chicken breasts during storage vol.21, pp.3, 2010,
  9. Inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat salad using UV-C irradiation vol.19, pp.2, 2010,