Historical Change of Population Abundances of Panonychus ulmi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Selected Apple Orchards in Suwon and Its Hypothetical Explanation

수원 지역 사과원에서 사과응애와 점박이응애 개체군의 역사적 변천과정 및 해석

  • Kim Dong Soon (Subtropical Horticultural Research Center, Cheju Natl. Univ.) ;
  • Lee Joon Ho (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul Natl. Univ.)
  • Published : 2005.06.01


Historical changes of population abundances of European red mite (ERM), Panonychus ulmi (Koch), and two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), were described in selected apple orchards in the National Horticultural Research Institute (NHRI, Suwon, Korea), based on research reports of the NHRI from 1958 to 1998. ERM was an abundant species up to 1970, and TSSM became a dominant species after 1980. The change occurred around mid 1970. Three hypotheses were made to explain the change: TSSM competitively replaces ERM, ground cover weeds are a major influencing factor on movement of TSSM (TSSM movement into trees is accelerated by destroying weeds), and ERM and TSSM populations are regulated by natural enemy complexes when the orchard system is not disrupted. And long-term results of the interaction between two species were projected according to the combination of different orchard management strategies: pesticide sprays (non-selective toxic pesticide spray : heavy pesticide pressure (HPP), and selective soft pesticide spray = low pesticide pressure (LPP)) and weed control methods (grass planting, and clean culture system with herbicides). In the HPP and grass planting system, ERMs are abundant because ERM can avoid competition with TSSM as movement of TSSM to trees are restricted, and natural enemy complexes are destroyed by toxic pesticides. In the HPP and clean culture system, TSSMs are abundant because TSSM moves to trees from early season and competitively replaces ERM. In the LPP and grass planting system, ERMs are abundant because movement of TSSM to trees is reduced, but they do not build up a high population density since their densities are regulated by natural enemy complexes. In the LPP and clean culture system, TSSM moves to trees and competes with ERM, but the competition pressure is reduced because population densities of mites are regulated in a lower level by natural enemy complexes. So, ERM can occurs in late season. Thus, two species can coexist temporarily with more ERM in early season and more TSSM in late season. TSSM abundant phenomenon presented in this study can be partially explained as a result of long-term interaction between ERM and TSSM under the HPP and clean culture system.


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