Historical Change of Population Abundances of Panonychus ulmi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Selected Apple Orchards in Suwon and Its Hypothetical Explanation

수원 지역 사과원에서 사과응애와 점박이응애 개체군의 역사적 변천과정 및 해석

  • Kim Dong Soon (Subtropical Horticultural Research Center, Cheju Natl. Univ.) ;
  • Lee Joon Ho (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul Natl. Univ.)
  • Published : 2005.06.01

Abstract

Historical changes of population abundances of European red mite (ERM), Panonychus ulmi (Koch), and two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), were described in selected apple orchards in the National Horticultural Research Institute (NHRI, Suwon, Korea), based on research reports of the NHRI from 1958 to 1998. ERM was an abundant species up to 1970, and TSSM became a dominant species after 1980. The change occurred around mid 1970. Three hypotheses were made to explain the change: TSSM competitively replaces ERM, ground cover weeds are a major influencing factor on movement of TSSM (TSSM movement into trees is accelerated by destroying weeds), and ERM and TSSM populations are regulated by natural enemy complexes when the orchard system is not disrupted. And long-term results of the interaction between two species were projected according to the combination of different orchard management strategies: pesticide sprays (non-selective toxic pesticide spray : heavy pesticide pressure (HPP), and selective soft pesticide spray = low pesticide pressure (LPP)) and weed control methods (grass planting, and clean culture system with herbicides). In the HPP and grass planting system, ERMs are abundant because ERM can avoid competition with TSSM as movement of TSSM to trees are restricted, and natural enemy complexes are destroyed by toxic pesticides. In the HPP and clean culture system, TSSMs are abundant because TSSM moves to trees from early season and competitively replaces ERM. In the LPP and grass planting system, ERMs are abundant because movement of TSSM to trees is reduced, but they do not build up a high population density since their densities are regulated by natural enemy complexes. In the LPP and clean culture system, TSSM moves to trees and competes with ERM, but the competition pressure is reduced because population densities of mites are regulated in a lower level by natural enemy complexes. So, ERM can occurs in late season. Thus, two species can coexist temporarily with more ERM in early season and more TSSM in late season. TSSM abundant phenomenon presented in this study can be partially explained as a result of long-term interaction between ERM and TSSM under the HPP and clean culture system.

References

  1. BCPC (British Crop Protection Council). 2003. The pesticide manual. 13th ed., 1344pp. Hampshire, UK
  2. Kim, H.C., C.J. Yoon, J.Y. Moon. 1972. Studies on herbicide effects for practical use, pp. 513-528. Res. Rept, for 1972, Horticultural Experimental Station, Suwon, Korea
  3. Kim, M.S. and J.K. Kim. 1977. Studies on herbicide effects in orchards, pp. 723-737. Res. Rept. for 1977, Horticultural Experimental Station, Suwon, Korea
  4. Lee, S.W., M.H. Lee, K.M. Choi and J.S. Hyun. 1985. Survey on occurrences of European red mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)), and their control status in apple orchards. Res. Rept. RDA (P . M & U) 27: 86-91
  5. Lee, O.S. 1958. Studies on mites: I. Seasonal abundance of three species of mites on apple. Korean J. Agro. 4: 51- 56
  6. Metcalf, R.L. and W.H. Luckmann. 1994. Introduction to insect pest management. 3rd ed., 650pp. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York
  7. Meyer,. R.H. 1974. Management of phytophagous and predatory mites in Illinois orchards. Environ. Entomol. 3: 333-340
  8. van de Vrie, M., J.A. McMurtry and C.B. Huffaker. 1972. Biology, ecology and pest status, and host-plant relations of Tetranychids. Hilgardia 41: 343-432
  9. Cranham, J.E. 1979. Managing spider mites on fruit trees. Span 22: 28-30
  10. Foot, W.H. 1962. Competition between two species of mites. I. Experimental results. Can. Ent, 94: 365 - 375 https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent94365-4
  11. Kim, J.-S. 1995. Population dynamics of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acrina: Tetranychidae) in apple orchards. M.S. thesis, Seoul National University, Suwon, Korea
  12. Luckmann, W.H., W.M. Bever, B.J. Butler, H.J. Hopen, R.L. Metcalf, H.B. Petty and P.W. Slife. 1971. Pesticides and pest control systems. In Agriculture's role in environmental quality. Proceedings of the 1st Allerton conference. Unversity of Illinois College of Agriculture Special Publication 21
  13. Park, S.D. K.C. lung, Y.D. Choo, S.D. Park, D.W. Choi and J.K. Yoon. 1990. Study on seasonal occurrence of apple mites, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) and Tetranychus urticae (Koch), in Kyungpook apple orchards. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 29: 20-24
  14. Kim, S.B. and J.T. Jang. Effects of chemical control against apple mites, pp. 76-78. Res. Rept. for 1979, Horticultural Experimental Station, Suwon, Korea
  15. Lee, K.Y. and Y.U. Cho. 1959. Effects of chemical control against European red mite (Metatetranychus ulmi Koch) damaging on tree fruits. Korean J. Agro. 5: 70-80
  16. Kim, D.S., J.H. Lee, H.Y. Jeon, M.S. Yiem and K.Y. Kim. 1995. Community structure of phytophagous arthropods and their natural enemies at different weed management systems in apple orchards. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 34: 256-265
  17. Lee, K.Y., Kho, K.C. and U.H. Paek. 1962. Studies on mites occurring in major fruit cultivation area. Res. Rept. RDA 5: 135-138
  18. Rota, P. 1967. Die gemeine spinmnilbe (Tetranychus urticae Koch) obstab. Weinb. Mitt. Sudtir. Ber. Ring 4: 190-191
  19. Lee, S.W. 1990. Studies on the pest status and integrated mite management in apple orchards. Ph.D. dissertation, 87pp. Seoul Nat'l University, Suwon
  20. Croft, B.A. and S.C. Hoyt. 1983. Integrated management of insect pests in pome and stone fruits. 454pp. New York: Wiley Intersci
  21. Kim, J.C. and S.J. Lee. 1968. Studies on chemical control of weeds in grapevine orchards, pp. 476 -483. Res. Rept. for 1968, Horticultural Experimental Station, Suwon, Korea
  22. Foot; W.H. 1963. Competition between two species of mites. II. Factors influencing intensity. Can. Ent, 95: 45 - 57 https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent9545-1
  23. Han, S., Jung, C. and J.H. Lee. Release strategies of Amblyseius womersleyi and population dynamics of A. womersleyi and Tetranychus uricae: I. Release position in pear. 2003. J. Asia-Pacific Entomol. 6: 221-227 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1226-8615(08)60190-9
  24. Helle, S.H. and M.W. Sabelis. 1985. Spider mites: their biology, natural enemies and control, vol 1A & B. Elsevier, Amsterdam
  25. Jeon, H.Y., D.S. Kim, M.R. Cho, M.S. Yiem and Y.D. Chang. 2000. Recent status of major fruit tree pest occurrences in Korea. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 41: 607-612
  26. Kim, H.C. 1971. Studies on herbicide effects for practical use, pp. 293-295. Res. Rept, for 1971, Horticultural Experimental Station, Suwon, Korea
  27. Croft. B.A. and D.L. McGroaty. 1977. The role of Ambliseius fallacis (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in Michigan apple orchards. Mich. State Univ. Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Rep. 333
  28. Flexner, J.L., P.H. Westigard, P. Gonzalves and R. Hilton. 1991. The effect of groundcover and herbicide treatment on twospotted spider mite density and dispersal in southern Oregon pear orchards. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 60: 111-123 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00177032
  29. Grob, H. 1951. Beobachtungen uber den Populationserlauf der Spinnmiben in der Westschweiz. Mitt. Schweiz Ent. Ges. 24: 263-278