Distribution of sewage-derived organic matter using fecal sterol in Masan Bay, Korea

마산만의 하수기인 유기물 fecal sterol의 분포

  • Choi Min-Kyu (Marine Environment Management Team, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute(NFRDI)) ;
  • Moon Hyo-Bang (Marine Environment Management Team, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute(NFRDI)) ;
  • Kim Sang-Soo (Marine Environment Management Team, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute(NFRDI)) ;
  • Lee Yoon (Marine Harmful Organisms Research Team, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute(NFRDI))
  • 최민규 (국립수산과학원 환경관리팀) ;
  • 문효방 (국립수산과학원 환경관리팀) ;
  • 김상수 (국립수산과학원 환경관리팀) ;
  • 이윤 (국립수산과학원 유해생물팀)
  • Published : 2005.05.01


Surface sediments and seawater were sampled at Masan and Haengam Bays of Korea, to evaluate contamination by sewage-derived organic matter using fecal sterols, Six stream-water samples into Masan and Haengam Bays were also sampled. Total concentrations of eight sterols (coprostanol, epichloestanol, epicoprostanol, cholesterol, cholestanol, brassicasterol, stigmasterol and $\beta-sitosterol$) were in the range of $1,274\~4,768{\mu}g/g$ dry weight in suspended particulate from the stream-water, $292\~2,244{\mu}g/g$ dry weight in suspended particulate from the seawater and $4.5\~27.2{\mu}g/g$ dry weight in the sediments. Although sterol compositions in sediments, seawater and stream-water were different, cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all samples. The proportion and concentration of coprostanol, a sewage tracer, in stream-water was much higher than those in sediment and seawater. The sterol levels including coprostanol in the sediments and seawater were higher at inner basin than at the outer bay. Some molecular indices and multivariate statistical analysis were used to assess the origin of these sterols and sewage contamination in the study area. The sterol composition patterns in stream-water were mainly associated with contamination by sewage-derived organic matters and those of seawater were associated with the activities of marine-originated organisms. Sterol levels in the sediments were both from the sewage input through stream-water and the marine- originated organisms. This survey suggests that the main source/route of sewage-derived organic matters in Masan Bay is the input of stream-water into the bay.


Sediment;Seawater;Stream-water;Sewage;Fecal sterol;Coprostanol


  1. 국립수산과학원, 2004, 한국해양환경조사연보 2003
  2. 조흥연, 채장원, 1997, 마산만의 장기간 물수지 및 해수교환 특성, 한국해안해양공학회지, 9, 74-85
  3. 조흥연, 채장원, 1998, 진해.마산만 오염부하량의 특성분석, 한국해안해양공학회지, 10, 132-140
  4. Hatcher, P. G. and P. A. McGillivary, 1979, Sewage contamination in the New Yark Bight, coprostanol as an indicator, Environmental Science and Technology, 12, 1225-1229
  5. Brown, R. C. and T. L. Wade, 1984, Sedimentary coprostanol and hydrocarbon distribution adjacent to a sewage outfall, Water Research, 18, 621-632
  6. Writer, J. H., J. A. Leenheer, J. B. Barber, G. L. Amy and S. C. Chapra, 1995, Sewage contamination in the upper Mississippi river as measured by the fecal sterol, coprostanol, Water Research, 29, 1427-1436
  7. Leeming, R., A. Ball, N. Ashbolt and P. Nichols, 1996, Using faecal sterols from humans and animals to distinguish faecal pollution in receiving waters, Water Research, 30, 2893-2900
  8. Nichols, P., R. Leeming, V. Latham, and M. Rayner, 1996a, Detection of sewage pollution, including sources of in inland and coastal Australian waters and sediments, In preprints of papers presented at 212th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Division of Environmental Chemistry, American Chemical Society. Orlando, FL, 36, 175-179pp
  9. Barrett, S. M., J. K. Volkman, G. A. Dunstan and J. M. Leroi, 1995, Sterols of 14 species diatoms, Journal of phycology, 31, 360-369
  10. 환경부, 1995, 부영양화 및 적조현상 규명에 관한 연구, 23-42pp
  11. 최민규, 최희구, 김상수, 문효방, 2005, Fecal sterol을 이용한 울산만과 주변해역에서 퇴적물내 하수기인 유기물 평가, 한국환경과학회지, 14(1), 23-32
  12. 환경부, 2003b, 환경백서 - 마산시, 창원시, 진해시
  13. Chalaux, N., H. Takada and J. M. Bayona, 1995, Molecular markers in Tokyo Bay sediments: Sources and distribution, Marine Environmental Research, 40, 77-92
  14. Thoumelin, G., L. Bodineau and M. Wartel, 1997, Origin and transport of organic matter across the Seine estuary: Fatty acid and sterol variations, Marine Chemistry, 58, 59-71
  15. Gonzalez-Orefa, J. A. and J. I. Saiz-Salinas, 1998, Short-term spatio-temporal changes in urban pollution by means of faecal sterols analysis, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 868-875
  16. Mudge, S. M. and C. G. Seguel, 1999, Organic contamination of San Vicente Bay, Chile, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38, 1011-1021
  17. Choi, H. G., S. G. Kim, S. S. Kim, H. B. Moon, P. Y. Lee and C. K. Park, 2002, Sterols of sewage indicators in marine sediments of Jinhae Bay, Korea, Journal of the Korean Society of Oceanography, 37, 51-57
  18. Hyun, J. H., S. J. Ju and H. R. Harvey, 2002, Fecal contamination associated with local reclamation activity in the Han River estuary, Journal of the Korean Society of Oceanography, 37, 224-231
  19. Peng, X., G. Zhang, B. Mai, Y. Min and Z. Wang, 2002, Spatial and temporal trend of sewage pollution indicated by coprostanol in Macao Estuary, southern China, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 45, 295-299
  20. Grimalt, J. O., P. Ferandez, J. M. Bayona and J. Albalges, 1990, Assessment of fecal sterols and ketones as indicators of urban sewage inputs to coastal waters, Environmental Science and Technology, 24, 357-363
  21. Venkatesan, M. I. and I. R. Kaplan, 1990, Sedimentary coprostanol as an index 'of sewage addition in Santa Monica Basin, Southern California, Environmental Science and Technology, 24, 208-214
  22. Jeng, W. and B. Han, 1994, Sedimentary coprostanol in Kaohsiung Harbour and the Tan-Shui Estuary, Taiwan, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 28, 494-499
  23. Chan, K., M. H. W. Lam, K. Poon, H. Yeung and T. K. T. Chiu, 1998, Application of sedimentary fecal stanols and sterols in tracing sewage pollution in coastal waters, Water Research, 32, 225- 235
  24. Fernandes, M. B., M. A. Sicre, J. N. Cardoso and S. J. Macedo, 1999, Sedimentary 4-desmethyl sterols and n-alkanols in an eutrophic urban estuary, Capibaribe River, Brazil, The Science of the Total Environment, 231, 1-16
  25. Quemeneur, M. and Y. Marty, 1994, Fatty alcohol and sterols in domestic wastewater, Water Resources, 28, 1217-1226
  26. 환경부, 2003, 마산시 및 창원시 주요하천의 수질특정망 자료
  27. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Coundil (ANZECC), 1992, Australian water quality guidelines for fresh and marine waters, Australian government publishing service, Canberra, Australia
  28. Leeming, R. and P. D. Nichols, 1996, Concentrations of coprostanol that correspond to existing bacterial indicator guideline limits, Water Research, 30, 2997-3006
  29. 김종구, 박청길, 신성교, 1995a, 진해만 해역의 하계 부영양화 모델링(I) - 생태계 모델을 이용한 식물플랑크톤 농도 분포 시뮬레이션-, 대한환경공학회지, 17, 121-135
  30. 김종구, 유선재, 박청길, 1995b, 진해만 해역의 하계 부영양화 모델링(II)-부영양화 제어방안-, 대한환경공학회지, 17, 215-223
  31. Carreira, R. S., A. L. R. Wagener and J. W. Readman, 2004, Sterols as markers of sewage contamination in a tropical urban estuary (Guanabara Bay, Brazil): space-time variations, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 60, 587-598
  32. Mudge, S. M. and D. G. Lintern, 1999, Comparison of sterol biomarkers for sewage with other measures in Victoria Harbour, B. C., Canada, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 48, 27-38
  33. Mudge, S. M., M. J. Bebianno, J. A. East and L. A. Barreiar, 1999, Sterols in the Ria Rormosa Lagoon, Portugal, Water Research, 33, 1038-1048
  34. DNRP (Department of natural resource protection), 1998, Implementation of a chemical method for differentiating human and animal fecal impacts in surface waters and sediments, Environmental monitoring division, Florida, Technical report series, TR: 98-01
  35. Carreira, R. S., A. L. R. Wagener, T. Fileman, J. Readman, S. A. Macko and A. Veiga, 2002, Changes in sedimentary organic carbon pool of a fertilized tropical estuary, Guanabara Bay, Brazil: an elemental, isotopic and molecular marker approach, Marine Chemistry, 79, 207-227
  36. Hudson, E. D., C. C. Parrish and R. J. Helleur, 2001, Biogeochemistry of sterols in plankton, settling particles and recent sediments in a cold ocean ecosystem (Trinity Bay, Newfoundland), Marine Chemistry, 76, 253-270
  37. Bums, K. A., J. K. Volkman, J. Cavanagh and D. Brinkman, 2003, Lipid as biomarkers for carbon cycling on the Northwest Shelf of Australia: results from a sediment trap study, Marine chemistry, 80, 103-128
  38. Fattore, E., E. Benfenati, R. Marelli, E. Cools and R. Fanelli, 1996, Sterols in sediment samples from Venice Lagoon, Italy, Chemosphere, 33, 2383-2393
  39. Volkman, J. K., 1986, A review of sterol markers for marine and terrigenous organic matter, Organic Geochemistry, 9, 83-99
  40. Nichols, P. D., R. Leeming, M. S. Rayner and V. Latham, 1996b, Use of capillary gas chromatography for measuring fecal-derived sterols-Application to stormwater, the sea-surface microlayer, beach greases, regional studies, and distinguishing algal blooms and human and non-human sources of sewage pollution, Journal of Chromatography A, 733, 497-509
  41. Mudge, S. M. and M. J. Bebianno, 1997, Sewage contamination following an accidental spillage in the Ria Formosa, Portugal, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34, 163-170
  42. McCalley, D. V., M. Cook and G. Nickless, 1981, Effect of sewage treatment on faecal sterols, Water Research, 15, 1019-1025
  43. Jeng, W., J. Wang and B. Han, 1996, Coprostanol distribution in marine sediments off southwestern' Taiwan, Environmental Pollution, 94, 47-52
  44. Volkman, J. K., S. M. Barrett, S. I. Blackburn, M. P. Mansour, E. L. Sikes and F. Gelin, 1998, Microalgal biomarkers: A review of recent research developments, Organic Geochemistry, 29, 1163-1179

Cited by

  1. Distribution of Fecal Sterols, Nonylphenol, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Water from Masan Bay, Korea vol.13, pp.3, 2010,