Nutritional Status and Bone Mineral Density of Elderly Women in Asan

  • Kim Ji Sun (Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kwon Young Suk (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Shin Yoon Jeong (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Kim Min Kyung (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Soonchunhyang University) ;
  • Kim Hee Seon (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Soonchunhyang University)
  • Published : 2005.03.01


Nutrition factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and bone mineral density of elderly women. Three hundred thirty five elderly women (over 65 years) in Asan were divided into three age groups (group 1, less than 70 y ; group 2, from 70 to 75 y ; group 3, 75 y or more). Total alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium (Ca) were analyzed using spectrophotometric procedure. Data for food and nutrient intakes were obtained by a 24-hour recall method. Bone density was measured by broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) using QUS-2. Age differences were tested with the X 2 test for categorical variables and with ANOVA and Tukey's test for continuous variables. Correlation was conducted to test the association between bone density and nutrient intake. The subjects in age groups 1,2 and 3 were $36.7\%$, $32.8\%$ and $30.4\%$, respectively. Height and body weight of the subjects were significantly decreased with age. Average bone density of the subjects in group 3 was lower than the other age groups. Osteoporosis determined by t-score is $17.9\%$ for group 1, $24.5\%$ for group 2 and $55.9\%$ for group 3 (p < 0.001). The serum Ca level of the subjects in group 2 was significantly lower than that of group 1 although mean values in all age groups are within the normal range. Dietary Ca intake, nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) and index of nutrient quality (INQ) were decreased with age. Bone density was negatively correlated with age (p < 0.001), while body mass index (p < 0.01) was positively related with bone density. Although partial correlation did not reveal the significant correlation of BMD and dietary calcium after controlling for age, since calcium intake was very poor compared to sodium and phosphorous intakes, recommendation of more calcium intake for elderly women especially those over 75 years must be continuously emphasized.