A Model for Evaluating the Radioactive Contamination in the Urban Environment

도시환경에서 방사성물질의 오염평가 모델개발

  • Published : 2005.09.30

Abstract

A model for evaluating radioactive contamination in the urban environment, named METRO-K, was developed as a basic step for accident consequence analysis in case of an accidental release. The three kind of radionuclides $(^{137}Cs,\;^{106}Ru,\;^{131}I)$ and the different chemical forms of iodine (particulate, organic and elemental forms) are considered in the model. The radioactive concentrations are evaluated for the five types of surface (roof, paved road, wall, lawn/soil, tree) as a function of time. Using the model, the contaminative impacts of the surfaces were intensively investigated with respect to with and without precipitation during the measurement periods of radionuclides in air. In addition, a practical application study was conducted using $^{137}Cs$ concentration in air and precipitation measured in an European country at the Chernobyl accident. As a result precipitation was an influential factor in surface contamination. The degree of contamination was strongly dependent on the types of radionuclide and surface. Precipitation was more influential in contamination of $^{137}Cs$ than that of $^{131}I$ (elemental form).

원자력 시설의 사고로 대기로 누출된 방사성 핵종의 도시환경 오염에 따른 사고결과해석을 위한 기본 단계로써 도시환경에 대한 오염평가 모델 METRO-K를 개발하였다. 모델은 3가지 방사성 핵종 $(^{137}Cs,\;^{106}Ru,\;^{131}I)$을 고려하며, 그 중에서 요오드는 3가지 다른 화학적 형태 (입자형태, 유기형태, 원소형태)를 구분하여 다루고 있다. 모델은 도시환경을 구성하는 5가지 주요표면 (지붕, 포장도로, 벽, 잔디/토양, 나무)에 대해 시간에 따른 방사성물질의 농도를 평가한다. 개발된 모델을 사용하여 강우량에 따른 표면의 오염영향과 아울러 체르노빌 사고시 유럽지역에서 측정된 공기중 $^{137}Cs$ 농도와 강우량 자료를 사용한 적용결과를 고찰하였다. 고찰결과 대부분 표면에서 강우량은 오염에 중요한 영향을 나타냈으며, 이러한 영향의 정도는 표면과 핵종에 따라 상이한 결과를 보였다. $^{137}Cs$의 오염은 $^{131}I$ (원소형태)에 비해 강우에 보다 민감한 영향을 나타냈다.

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