Identification of Antagonistic Bacteria, Pseudomonas aurantiaca YC4963 to Colletotri­chum orbiculare Causing Anthracnose of Cucumber and Production of the Antibiotic Phenazine-l-carboxylic acid

Colletotrichum orbiculare에 대한 길항세균 Pseudomonas aurantiaca YC4963의 분리 동정 및 항균물질 Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid의 생산

  • Chae Hee-Jung (Division of Applied Life Sciences (BK21 program), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim Rumi (Division of Applied Life Sciences (BK21 program), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Moon Surk-Sik (Department of Chemistry, Kongju National University) ;
  • Ahn Jong-Woong (Division of Ocean Science, Korea Maritime University) ;
  • Chung Young-Ryun (Division of Applied Life Sciences (BK21 program), Gyeongsang National University)
  • 채희정 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부, 기초과학연구소) ;
  • 김루미 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부, 기초과학연구소) ;
  • 문석식 (공주대학교 화학과) ;
  • 안종웅 (한국해양대학교 해양과학부) ;
  • 정영륜 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부, 기초과학연구소)
  • Published : 2004.12.01


A bacterial strain YC4963 with antifungal activity against Colletotrichum orbiculare, a causal organism of cucumber anthracnose was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino in Korea. Based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, the bac­terial strain was identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca. The bacteria also inhibited mycelial growth of several plant fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani on PDA and 0.1 TSA media. The antifungal activity was found from the culture filtrate of this isolate and the active compound was quantitatively bound to XAD adsorption resin. The antibiotic compound was purified and identified as phenazine-l-carboxylic acid on the basis of combined spectral and chemical analyses data. This is the first report on the production of phenazine-l-carboxylic acid by Pseudomonas aurantiaca.


anthracnose;Colletotrichum orbiculare;phenazine-1-carboxylic acid;Pseudomonas aurantiaca


  1. Chung, Y.R, C.H. Kim, I. Hwang, and J. Chun. 2000. Paenibacillus koreansis, sp. nov., a new species that produces an iturin-like antifungal compound. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50, 1495-1500
  2. Emment, R.W. and D.G. Parbery. 1975. Appressoria. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 13, 147-167
  3. Ingram, J.M. and A.C. Blackwood. 1970. Microbial production of phenazines. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 13, 267-282
  4. Sutton, B.C. 1992. The Glomerella and its anamorph Colletotrichum, p. 1-26. In J.A. Bailey and M.J. Feger (ed.), Colletotrichum; Biology. Pathology and Control. CAB International, U.K
  5. Thomashow, L.S. and D.M. Weller. 1988. Role of a phenazine antibiotic from Pseudomonas fluorescens in biological control of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. J. Bacteriol. 170, 3499- 3508
  6. Thomashow, L.S., M.W. David., and F. Robert. 1990. Production of the antibiotic phenazine- 1-carboxylic by fluorescent Pseudomonas species in the rhizosphere of wheat. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 56, 908- 912
  7. Agrios, G.N. 1988. Plant pathology, 3rd ed., p. 803. Academic press, San Diego, California
  8. Kim, B.S., J.Y. Lee, and B.K. Hwang. 2000. In vivo control and in vitro antifungal activity of rhamnolipid B, a glycolipid antibiotic, against Phytophthora capsici and Colletotrichum orbiculare. Pest Manag. Sci. 56, 1029-1035
  9. Deka Boruah, H.P. and B.S. Dileep Kumar. 2002. Biological activity of secondary metabolites produced by a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Folia Microbiol. 47, 359-363
  10. Weller, D.M. 1988. Biological control of soilborn plant pathogens in the rhizosphere with bacteria. Ann. Rev. Phythopathol. 26, 379- 407
  11. Anzai, Y., H. Kim, J.Y. Park, H. Wakabayashi, and H. Oyaizu. 2000. Phylogenetic affiliation of the pseudomonads based on 16S rRNA sequence. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50, 1563-1589
  12. Howell, C.R. and R.D. Stipanovic. 1980. Suppression of Pythium ultimum induced damping-off of cotton seedlings by Pseudomonas fluorescens and its antibiotic, pyoluteorin, Phytopathology 70, 712-715
  13. Lee, J.Y., S.S. Moon, and B.K. Hwang. 2003. Isolation and in vitro and in vivo activity against Phytophthora capsici and Colletotrichum orbiculare of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain GC-B26. Pest Manag. Sci. 59, 872-882
  14. Pierson III, L.S. and E.A. Pierson. 1996. Phenazine antibiotic production in Pseudomonas aureofaciens: role in rhizosphere ecology and pathogen suppression. FEMS Microb. Letters 136, 101-108
  15. Smibert, R.M. and N.R. Krieg. 1991. General characterization, p. 409-433. In Gerhardt, P. R., G.E. Murray, R.N. Costilow, E.W. Nester, W.A. Wood, N.R. Krieg, and G.B. Phillips (ed.), Manual of methods for general bacteriology, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D. C.
  16. Goodfellow, M. and A.G. O'Donell. 1994. Chemical methods in prokaryotic systems. p. 575. John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y
  17. Shanahan, P., P. Simpson, J.D. Glennon, D.J. O'Sullinan, and F. O'Gara. 1992. Isolation of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol from a fluorescent pseudomonad and investigation of physiological parameters influencing its production. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 58, 353-358
  18. Burkhead, K.D., D.A. Schisler, and P.J. Slininger. 1994. Pyrrolnitrin production by biological control agent Pseudomonas cepacia B37W in culture and in colonized wounds of potatoes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 2031-2039
  19. Korsten, L. and P. Jeffries. 2000. Potential for biological control of diseases caused by Colletotrichum. p. 266-291. In D. Prusky, S. Freeman and M.B. Dickman (ed.), Colletotrichum: Host specificity, pathology, and host-pathogen interaction. American Phytopathological Society, St. Minnesota