Distribution and Characteristics of Acidotolerant Heterotrophic and Naphthalene­Degrading Bacteria in Acidic Soils

산성토양에서 내산성 종속영양세균과 나프탈렌분해세균의 분포 및 특성

  • Moon Yong-Suk (Department of Microbiology and Genetic Engineering, University of Ulsan) ;
  • Chu Kwang-Il (Department of Microbiology and Genetic Engineering, University of Ulsan) ;
  • Kim Jongseol (Department of Microbiology and Genetic Engineering, University of Ulsan)
  • 문용석 (울산대학교 자연과학대학 미생물 유전공학전공) ;
  • 주광일 (울산대학교 자연과학대학 미생물 유전공학전공) ;
  • 김종설 (울산대학교 자연과학대학 미생물 유전공학전공)
  • Published : 2004.12.01

Abstract

The distribution and characteristics of acidotolerant heterotrophic and naphthalene-degrading bacteria were investigated in two forest areas, one near Ulsan petrochemical industrial complex (Sunam) and the other in countryside (Daeam). Average values of soil pH at Sunam and Daeam were 3.8 and 4.6, respectively. When het­erotrophic and naphthalene-degrading bacteria were enumerated by most probable number (MPN) procedures at Sunam, the median values of heterotrophs growing at pH 7.0 and pH 4.0 were $5.3{\times}10^7\;and\;3.3{times}10^7$ MPN/g, whereas those of naphthalene-degraders were $5.6{\times}10^4\;and\;4.0{times}10^5$ MPN/g, respectively. While the medians of heterotrophs at Daeam were larger than those at Sunam, the concentrations of naphthalene-degraders were higher at Sunam compared to those at Daeam. From the MPN tubes and enrichment cultures, we obtained 17 isolates of naphthalene-degraders which were identified as Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Brevundimonas vesic­ularis, Burkholderia cepacia, Ralstonia pickettii, Pseudomanas fluorescens, and Chryseomonas luteola. Among them, 6 isolates showed higher naphthalene-degrading activity on minimal media of pH 4 compared to pH 7, whereas the extent of growth was not greater at pH 4 than at pH 7 when they were inoculated on nutrient-rich media. It is plausible that the pH may affect naphthalene-degrading activity of the isolates by changing fatty acid composition of bacterial membrane.

Keywords

acidic soil;acidotolerant bacteria;biodegradation;heterotroph;naphthalene-degrading bacteria

References

  1. 신만균, 최기룡. 1996. 울산공단 주변의 토양오염에 따른 원생동물의 분포. 한국환경과학학회지 5, 187-194
  2. 이승우, 이수욱. 1995. 울산 공단주변 산림토양의 산성화가 산림생태계의 양료와 중금속 분포에 미치는 영향. 한국임학회지 84, 286-298
  3. Dedysh, S.N., N.S. Panikov, W. Liesack, R. Großkopf, J. Zhou, and J.M. Tiedje. 1998. Isolation of acidophilic methane-oxidizing bacteria from norther peat wetlands. Science 282, 281-284
  4. Edwards, K.J., T.M. Gihring, and J.F. Banfield. 1999. Seasonal variations in microbial populations and environmental conditions in an extreme acid mine drainage environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3627-3632
  5. Fozo, E.M., and R.G. Quivey, Jr. 2004. Shifts in the membrane fatty acid profile of Streptococcus mutans enhance survival in acidic environments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 929-936
  6. Geiselbrecht, A.D., R.P. Herwig, J.W. Deming, and J.T. Staley. 1996. Enumeration and phylogenetic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria from Puget Sound sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 3344-3349
  7. Hallberg, K.B., and D.B. Johnson. 2001. Biodiversity of acidophilic prokaryotes. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 49, 37-84
  8. Sutherland, J.B., F. Rafii, A.A. Kahn, and C.E. Cerniglia. 1995. Mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, p. 269-306. In L.Y. Young and C. E. Cerniglia (ed.), Microbial transformation and degradation of toxic organic chemicals. Wiley-Liss, NY
  9. Jung, M.C., I. Thornton, and H.-T. Chon. 2002. Arsenic, Sb, and Bi contamination of soils, plants, waters, and sediments in the vicinity of the Dalsung Cu-W mine in Korea. Sci. Tot. Environ. 295, 81-89
  10. Tranvik, L.J., W. Granéli, and G. Gahnström. 1994. Microbial activity in acidified and limed humic lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51, 2529-2536
  11. 환경부. 1999. 토양오염공정시험방법, 환경부고시 1999-116
  12. Bååth, E., Å. Frostegård, and H. Fritze. 1992. Soil bacterial biomass, activity, phospholipid fatty acid pattern, and pH tolerance in an area polluted with alkaline dust deposition. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 4026-4031
  13. Schrenk, M.O., K.J. Edwards, R.M. Goodman, R.J. Hamers, and J.F. Banfield. 1998. Distribution of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans: implications for generation of acid mine drainage. Science 279, 1519-1522
  14. Koch A.L. 1994. Growth measurement, p. 248-276. In P. Gerhardt, R.G.E. Murray, W.A. Wood, and N.R. Krieg (ed.), Methods for general and molecular bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C
  15. Krieg, N.R. and P. Gerhardt 1994. Solid, liquid/soild, and semisolid culture, p. 216-223. In P. Gerhardt, R.G.E. Murray, W.A. Wood, and N.R. Krieg (ed.), Methods for general and molecular bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C
  16. Knaebel, D.B., T.W. Federle, D.C. McAvoy, and J.R. Vestal. 1996. Microbial mineralization of organic compounds in an acidic agricultural soil: effects of preadsorption to various soil constituents. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15, 1865-1875
  17. Stapleton, R.D., D.C. Savage, G.S. Sayler, and G. Stacey. 1998. Biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in an extremely acidic environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 4180-4184
  18. 정필문, 신광수, 임종순, 이인수, 박성주. 2001. 16S rDNA 염기서열에 의한 청정지역 및 공단지역내 식물잎권의 내산성세균 군집의 다영성. 미생물학회지 37, 265-272
  19. Quentmeier, A., and C.G. Friedrich. 1994. Transfer and expression of degradative and antibiotic resistance plasmids in acidophilic bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 973-978
  20. 안영범, 조홍범, 최영길. 1998. 수계 세균 군집에 미치는 산성화 영향 모사 분석. 미생물학회지 34, 175-182
  21. Hagedorn, C. 1976. Influences of soil acidity on Streptomyces populations inhabiting forest soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32, 368-375
  22. Ball, D.F. 1964. Loss-on-ignition as an estimate of organic matter and organic carbon in non-calcarious soil. J. Soil Sci. 15, 84-92
  23. 환경부. 2002. 2001 토양측정망 운영결과
  24. Bedard, D.L., R. Unterman, L.H. Bopp, M.J. Brennan, M.L. Haberl, and C. Johnson. 1986. Rapid assay for screening and characterizing microorganisms for the ability to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51, 761-768
  25. Forster. J.C. 1995. Soil sampling, handling, storage and analysis, p. 49-122. In K. Alef, and P. Nannipieri (ed.), Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic Press, London, UK
  26. Cerniglia, C.E. 1992. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Biodegradation 3, 351-368
  27. Bond, P.L., G.K. Druschel, and J.F. Banfield. 2000. Comparison of acid mine drainage microbial communities in physically and geochemically distinct ecosystems. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 4962-4971