Long-term Trends of Visibility and Air Quality in Seoul, Ganghwa, Susan, Gwangju, Jeju

서울, 강화, 서산, 광주, 제주지역에서의 장기간 대기오염 및 시정 변화경향에 대한 연구 : 1990년 1월~2001년 7월

  • Han, J.S. (Dept. of Atmospheric Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Moon, Kwang-Joo (Dept. of Atmospheric Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Kong, B.J. (Dept. of Atmospheric Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Hong, Y.D. (Dept. of Atmospheric Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Lee, S.J. (Dept. of Atmospheric Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Shin, J.Y. (Meteorological Research Institute, Korea Meteorological Administration)
  • 한진석 (국립환경연구원 대기화학과) ;
  • 문광주 (국립환경연구원 대기화학과) ;
  • 공부주 (국립환경연구원 대기화학과) ;
  • 홍유덕 (국립환경연구원 대기화학과) ;
  • 이석조 (국립환경연구원 대기화학과) ;
  • 전영신 (기상청 기상연구소)
  • Received : 2004.06.30
  • Accepted : 2004.08.12
  • Published : 2004.08.31


Visibility impairment was known as an indicator of the increased air pollution. In many previous studies, it is known that both directly emitted fine particles mainly from vehicles and secondary aerosols from photochemical reactions could contribute to this visibility impairment in addition to the meteorological condition. Furthermore, the visibility showed different change patterns according to the geographical condition. In order to research into the influence of these factors on visibility, this study analyzed the visibility at 15:00, observed from 1990 to 2001 in Seoul, Ganghwa, Susan, Gwangju, Jeju. As a result, the visibility was increased in Seoul except the rainfall period, but in Susan, Gwangju, Jeju, it decreased with the relative humidity (RH). Especially, in Seoul, the number of low visibility days was larger than other sites and variations of the visibility were sensitive to the concentration of air pollutants, such as TSP, $NO_2$, $O_3$. The visibility impairment was mainly observed in meteorological condition of RH<50% and relatively stationary front. Therefore it is inferred that photochemical smog could lead to the low visibility in Seoul. On the other hands, in Ganghwa and Susan, when RH was 60~70%, the low visibility observed under the influence of the transports of air pollutants from nearby cities as well as humid air mass from coastal region. And in Jeju, sea fog and humid air mass caused the visibility impairment when the RH was larger than 80%. Finally, during the observational period, some cases of low visibility phenomena were simultaneously observed in the vast region including Seoul, Susan, Ganghwa. It not only includes the visibility aggravation by Asian Dust, but also could be caused by the movement and diffusion of flying dust or secondary aerosols. Moreover, the result shows that these phenomena could be mainly influenced by meteorological factors covering the wide regions.


Supported by : 국립환경연구원


  1. 김신도, 김종호, 이정주, 1992, 겨울철 서울도심의 대기중 부유분진의 특성, 한국대기보전학회지, 8(2), 105-111.
  2. 김영성, 이시혜, 김진영, 문길주, 김용표, 2002, 1980년대와 1990년대 우리나라의 시정 변화, 한국대기환경학회지, 18(6), 503-514
  3. 김해구, 민경덕, 1990, 한국의 시정의 경년변화와 계절변화, J. Kor. Ear. Sci. Soc., 11, 86-99.
  4. 국립환경연구원, 1994, 수도권지역의 시정장애현상규명을 위한 조사연구(I)-시정감소 원인 물질 및 메카니즘 규명-.
  5. 국립환경연구원, 1997, 수도권지역의 시정장애 현상 규명을 위한 조사 연구 종합보고서, 국립환경연구원.
  6. 박세옥, 백남준, 김용표, 문길주, 김영성, 1994, 1980~1993년중의 서울의 시정 추이, 한국대기보전학회지, 10(3), 203-208.
  7. 백남준, 김태오, 김성주, 김용표, 문길주, 1994a, 서울시의 1993년 가을철 시정 및 입자 특성측정 및 분석, 한국대기보전학회지, 10(1), 32-40.
  8. 백남준, 김태오, 김용표, 문길주, 1994b, 시정장애 현상 원인과 그 규명방법 : 수도권 지역의 시정장애현상 연구를 위하여, 한국대기 보전학회지, 10(1), 1-23.
  9. 백남준, 이종훈, 김용표, 문길주, 1996, 1994년 6월 서울지역 시정장애의 측정 및 분석, 한국대기보전학회지, 12(4), 407-419.
  10. 윤순창, 이강웅, 1998, 서울지역의 시정 장애 요인에 관한 연구, 한국대기보전학회지, 14(3), 229-235.
  11. 이종범, 김용국, 백복행, 1996, 서울과 춘천의 장기간 시정 변화경향, 한국대기보전학회지,12(4), 473-478.
  12. 이종훈, 백남준, 김용표, 문길주, 1995, 1993년 8월의 서울지역 시정 연구, 한국대기보존학회지, 11(3), 291-298.
  13. 정용승, 김태군, 정재섭, 1992, 도시의 대기오염과 시정감소에 관하여, 한국대기보전학회지,8(1), 1-6.
  14. 최정숙, 정용승, 1993, 서울의 대기오염과 시정감소, 한국대기보전학회지, 9(1), 51-60.
  15. 한진석, 김병곤, 김신도, 1996, 1994년 수도권 지역에서의 시정과 미세 입자상물질 화학조성과의 관계해석, 한국대기보전학회지,12(4), 377-387.
  16. Lewis, J., D. Koracin, R. Rabin, J. Businger, 2003, Sea fog off the California coast: Viewed in the context of transient weather systems, Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(D15) : 4457.
  17. Doyle, M., S. Dorling, 2002, Visibility trends in the UK 1950-1997, Atmospheric Environment, 36:3161-3172. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00248-0
  18. Hodkinson, R. J., 1966, Calculations of color and visibility in urban atmospheres polluted by gaseous NO2, Air Water Poll. Int. J., 10, 137.
  19. Koschmieder, H., 1924, Theorie der horisontalen Sichtweite, Beitr. Phys. frei. Atmos., 12(33-53), 171-181.
  20. Tsai, Y. I., M. T. Cheng, 1999, Visibility and aerosol chemical compositions near the coastal area in Central Taiwan, The Science of the Total Environment 231: 37-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00093-5
  21. Cheng, M. T., Y. I. Tsai, 2000, Characterization of visibility and atmospheric aerosols in urban, suburban, and remote areas, The Science of the Total Environment 263: 101-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00670-7
  22. Sequeira, R., H. L. Kim, 1998, The effect of meteorological parameters and aerosol constituents on visibility in urban Hongkong, Atmospheric Environment, 32(16), 2855-2871.