The Optimized Formulas of Rye Bread on the Sensory Properties using RSM

RSM을 적용한 관능 특성에 따른 Rye Bread의 최적 Formulas에 대한 연구

  • 권경순 (서해대학 호텔조리영양과)
  • Published : 2004.09.01


The effects of water, rye flour and vital gluten on the sensory properties of bread were studied by response surface methodology and sensory evaluations. A response surface model was used to evaluate the effects observed and to determine the optimum variations for rye bread. The study included 12 combinations of the following independent variables: Water(57, 62, 67%), Rye flour(0, 10, 30, 50%), and Vital gluten(0, 1, 3, 5%). Bread quality attributes determined were specific volume, color, texture, appearance, taste, chewiness, moisture, overall. Rye bread specific volume, sensory evaluation values and Instrumental testing results were significantly affected by variety (water, rye flour and vital gluten). Rye bread with a high specific volume was produced using water 67%, rye flour 10% and vital gluten 3%. Whereas, rye breads with a high overall sensory evaluation were water 62 %, rye flour 10 % and vital gluten 5%. And Specific volume predicted and overall preference also was shown high. It was shown that the experimental design used provided information about the rye bread of variation of water, rye flour and vital gluten and can be a useful supplement to standardized and optimized formulas in rye bread making. The results suggest that water, rye flour, vital gluten can be combined in rye bread making at various levels, contributing to optimize the functional properties of rye bread. These result represents that breads loaf volume related to directly consumer preference.


  1. Weipert, D. Processing performance of rye as infIuenced by sprouting by resistance and pentosan contents. Pages 39-48 in : Int. Rye Symp. Technol. Prod. K. poutanen and K. Autio, eds. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland : Helsinki. 1995
  2. Walter Bushuk. Rye: Production, Chemistry, and Technology. Inc. Published. 2nd edition, pp. 115-118. 2001
  3. Finney, KF. An optimized, straigt-dough, breadmaking method after 44 years. Cereal Chem. 61(1): 20-27. 1984
  4. Walker, CE and Parkhurst, AM. Response surface analysis of Bake-Lab Data with a personal computer. Cereal Chem. 29(10):663-666. 1984
  5. Myers, RH. Response Surface Methodology. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg. 1976
  6. Mettler, E and Seibel, W. Effects of emulsifiers and hydrocolloids on whole wheat bread quality : A response surface methodology study. Cereal Chem. 70(4):373-377. 1993
  7. Gunnarsson, E. Cultivar Variation and breeding goals for rye in the Nordic countries, pp. 26-32 in : Int. Rye Symp. Technol. Prod. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland : Espoo. 1995
  8. Pyler, EJ. Baking Science & Technology. Published by Sosland Publishing Co. Third edition, page 393-396. 1988
  9. Aboubacar, A, Kirleist, AW and Oumarou, M. Important sensory affecting consumer acceptance of sorghum porridge in West Africa as related to quality tests. JournaI of Cereal Science 30:217-225. 1999
  10. Magnus, EM, Brathen, E, Sahlstrom, S, Mosleth Fargestad, E and Ellekjar, MR. Effects of wheat variety and processing conditions in experimental bread baking studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. Journal of CereaI Science 25:289-301. 1997
  11. Box, GEP and Wilson, KB. On the experimental attainment of optimum conditions. J. Royal Statistical Soc. (Series B) 13: 1-34. 1951
  12. American Association of Cereal Chemists. Approved Methods of the AACC, 9th ed. Method 10-10B. The Association : St. Paul, MN. 1995
  13. Ebeler, SE and Walker, CE. Wheat and composite flour chapatis : effect of soy flour and sucrose ester emulsifiers. Cereal Chem. 60(4):270-275. 1983
  14. Lin Carson and Xiuzhi S. Sun. Creep-recovery of bread and correlation to sensory measurements of textural attributes. Cereal Chem. 78(1):101-104. 2001
  15. Weberpals, F. Fundamentals of rye bread production. Baker's Dig. 1950
  16. Gordon, J. Basic production aspects of rye bread. Baker's Dig. 44:38-39,67. 1970
  17. Lai, CS, Davis, AB and Hoseney, RC. Production of whole wheat bread with good loaf volume. Cereal Chem. 66(3):224-227. 1989