Hepatoprotective Effects of Allium monanthum MAX. Extract on Ethanol-Induced Liver Damage in Rat

  • Choi, Byun-Suk (Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University) ;
  • Lee, Myung-Yul (Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University) ;
  • Jeong, Yoonhwa (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University) ;
  • Shin, Gil-Man (Department of Food and Cooking Science, Sunchon National University)
  • 발행 : 2004.09.01


This study investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of Allium monanthum MAX. (AME) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100~150 g, were divided into 5 groups; normal group (NOR), AME 200 mg/kg treated group (S1), ethanol (35%, 10 mL/kg) treated group (S2), AME 200 mg/kg and ethanol (35%, 10 mL/kg) treated group (S3) and AME 400 mg/kg and alcohol (35%, 10 mL/kg) treated group (S4). AME was fractionated by the following solvents: n-hexane, chloroform, EtOAC and n-BuOH. Antioxidant index of the n-BuOH fraction was 600 ppm, highest among fractions. The growth rate and feed efficiency ratio were decreased by ethanol, but gradually increased to the corresponding level of the normal group by administering AME. The serum ALT activities that were elevated by ethanol were significantly decreased by AME administration. It was also observed that the hepatic activities of SOD, catalase, xanthine oxidase and GSH-Px that were increased by ethanol were also markedly decreased in the AME treated group with compared to ETB. These results suggest that ethanol extracts of Allium monanthum MAX. may have a protective effect on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver.


  1. Lee TB. 1982. Illustrated Flora of Korea Seoul. Hyangmoonsa, Seoul. p 206
  2. Kang SS, Yoon HS, Chang IM. 1988. Natural Products Sciences. Seoul National University Press, Seoul. p 71
  3. Branen AL. 1957. Toxiciligy and biochemistry of BHA and BHT. Am Oil Chem Soc 52: 59-64
  4. Choi U, Shin OH, Chang YS, Shin JI. 1992. Antioxidant activity of ethanol extract from Rhus javanica Linne on edible oil. Korean J Food Sci Technol 24: 320-325
  5. Lim DK, Choi U, Shin DH, Jeong YS. 1994. Antioxidative effect of propolis extract on palm oil and lard. Korean J Food Sci Technol 26: 622-626
  6. Lim DK, Choi U, Shin DH. 1996. Antioxidative activity of some solvent extract from Caesalpinia sappan L. Korean J Food Sci Technol 28: 77-82
  7. Park JH, Kang KC, Baek SB, Lee YH, Rhee KS. 1991. Separation of antioxidant compounds from edible marine algae. Korean J Food Sci Technol 23: 256-261
  8. Cho SY, You BJ, Chang MH. 1994. Screening for the antioxidants in unused marine resources by the polarographic method. Korean J Food Sci Technol 26: 417-421
  9. Kalimoto G, Yoshida M, Shibahra A. 1985. A role of tocopherol on the heat stability of vegetable oils. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkashi 38: 30-308
  10. Ui JJ. 1989. Isolation and identification of constituents from antioxidant andhematopoietic factions of panax ginseng C.A. Mayer. PhD Dissertation. Seoul National University, Korea
  11. Kim SD, Do JH, Oh HI. 1981. Antioxidant activity of panaxginseng browning products. J Korean Agric Chem Soc 24: 161-166
  12. Lim DK, Choi U, Shin DH. 1996. Antioxidative activity of some solvent extract from Caesalpinia sappan L. Korean J Food Sci Technol 28: 77-82
  13. Oh YS, Lee ST, Lee WT. 1981. A taxonomic study of the allium species in Korea. Jour Kor Pl Tax 11: 21-41
  14. Shogakukan. 1985. Encyclopedia of Chinese Drug. Shanghai Science & Technology Press, Tokyo, Japan. p 226
  15. Chang JK. 1996. Wild herbs for health. Nexus Co. Ltd, Seoul. p 210.
  16. Ahn HS, Lee CY, Park SH. 1982. An agronomical enumeration of Korean plant resources. Ilchogak, Seoul. p 294
  17. Kim WJ, Choi HS. 2001. Natural Spices. Hyoil Press, Seoul. p 257-261
  18. Lim WK, Park SK, Rhu JW, Sah DM, Lee MS, Rhim KO. 1997. Resources of botany. Seoil Press, Seoul. p 267- 269
  19. Chung HD. 1974. Studies on the contents of chemical constituents of Allium monanthum MAX. Yongnam National University Thesis 8: 345-351
  20. Shogakukan. 1985. Encyclopedia of Chinese drugs. Shanghai Science & Technology Press, Tokyo. p 26
  21. Baek NI, Ahn EM, Park HY, Chang YJ. 2001. Development of biologically active compounds from edible plant Sources-IV. isolation of galactosyldiglyderide from the Allium monanthum MAX. Kor Jour of Life Sci 11: 93-96
  22. Ahn EM, Baek NI. 2000. Development of biologically active compounds from edible plant Sources-IV. isolation of flavonoids from the Allium monanthum MAX. J Korean Soc Agric Chem Biotechnol 43: 341-316
  23. Simic MG, Krel M. 1980. Autooxidation in food and biological systems. In Natural antioxidants. Plenum Press, NY. p 261-282
  24. Oh YS, Lee ST, Lee WT. 1981. A tanonomic study of the Allium species in Korea. Jour Kor Pl Tox 11: 21-41
  25. Kim WB, Lee KK, Lee DW. 1986. Studies on the establishment of cultural practices of Allium grayi REGEL (1) Effect of seeding date with different seed bulbs on the growth and yield. J Kor Soc Hort Sci 27: 15-21
  26. Lee SM, Sang JH, Oh SM, Park SJ. 1988. Studies on the karyotype analysis of Allium grayi REGEL in Korea. J Kor Soc Hort Sci 29: 75-80
  27. Choi JY, Lee IS, Kim SC. 1992. Effects of wild garlic on serum component of cholesterol fed rats. J Kor Oil Chem Soc 9: 73-79
  28. Shirahashi HN, Murakami M, Watanabe A, Ngatsu J, Skakibara H, Tokuda H, Nishino, Lwashima A. 1993. Isolation and identification of anti-tumor-promoting principles from the fresh-water cyanobacterium Phormidium teune. Chem Pharm Bull 41: 1664-1666
  29. Tsukatani H, Yamade S, Tokumurra A, Miyamoto T, Takauchi K. 1976. Isolation of an acute hyposensitive substance from bovine brain lipid fraction. Chem Pharm Bull 24: 2294-2299
  30. Glueck CJ, Hog E, Allen C, Gartside PS. 1980. Effects of alcohol ingestion on lipid and lipoprotein in normal man. Am J Clin Nutr 33: 2287-2293
  31. Figueroa PB, Klitz AP. 1962. Alterations of alcohol dehydrogenase and other enzyme flowing oral alcohol intoxication. Am J Clin Nutr 11: 235-239
  32. Aykac G, Usual M, Yalcin S, Kocak TN, Sivas A. 1978. The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on hepatic lipid peroxide, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in rats. Toxicol 36: 71-78
  33. Chance B, Bsies H, Boveris A. 1979. Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiol Rev 59: 527-547
  34. Hammond B, Kontos A, Hess ML. 1985. Oxygen radicals in the adults respiratory distress syndrome, in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury, and cerebral vascular damage. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 63: 173-187
  35. Sung KS, Chun C, Kwon YH, Kim KH, Chang CC. 2000. Effect of red ginseng component on the antioxidative enzymes activities and lipid peroxidation in liver of mice. J Ginseng Res 24: 29-34
  36. Fujji M, Ohmachi T, Sagami I, Watanabe M. 1985. Liver microsomal drug metabolism in ethanol treated hamsters. Biochem Pharmacol 34: 3881-3890
  37. Downry JM, Miura Y, Eddy LJ, Chambers DE, Mellert T, Hearse DJ, Yellon DM. 1987. Xanthine oxidase is not a source of free radicals in the isochemic rabbit heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 19: 1053-1060
  38. Crapo CH, McCord JM, Fridovich I. 1978. Preparation and assay of superoxide dismutase. In Methods enzymol. Fleischer S, Packer L, eds. Academic press, New York. Vol 53, p 382-422
  39. Aebi H. 1974. Catalase. In Methods of enzymatic analysis. 3rd ed. Bergmeyer HU, Bergmeyer J, Grabi M, eds. Verlag chemie, New York. Vol 2, p 673-684
  40. Flohe L, Wolfgng A, Gunzler WA. 1984. Assay of glutathine peroxidase. In Methods in enzymatic analysis. Packer L, ed. Academic Press, New York. p 14-121
  41. Buege JA, Aust SD. 1978. Microsomal lipid peroxidation In Methods in enzymology. ed. Acdemic Press, New York. Vol 52, p 302-310
  42. Tietze F. 1969. Enzymatic methods for quantitative determination of nanogram amounts of total and oxidized glutathione. Anal Biochem 27: 502-522
  43. Reitman S, Frankel S. 1957. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic determination and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. Am J Clin Pathol 28: 56-63
  44. Lowry CH, Rsenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. 1951. Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193: 256-275
  45. Liber CS, Decarli LM. 1986. The feeding of ethanol in liquid diet. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res 10: 550-560
  46. Halsted CH. 1980. Alcoholism and malnutrition introduction to the symposium. Am J Clin Nutr 33: 2705-2708
  47. Schisler NJ, Singhn SM. 1989. Effect of ethanol in vivo on enzymes which detoxify oxygen free radicals. Free radical Biology & Medicine 7: 117-128
  48. Koo BK, Dhung JM, Lee HS. 1998. Biochemical evaluation of nutritional status of protein and lipid in patients with alcoholic liver disease. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 27: 1236-1243
  49. Zimmerman HJ. 1981. Chemical hepatic injury and its detection. In Toxicology of the liver. Plaa GL, Hewitt WR, eds. Raven press, New York. Vol 22, p 1-45
  50. Kim MH, Kim CJ. 1991. The effect of the levels of dietary zinc and alcohol consumption on lipid metabolism in the rats. Kor J Nutr 24: 87-86
  51. Yagi K. 1987. Lipid peroxides and human disease. Chem Phys Lipid 45: 337-349
  52. Storch J, Ferber E. 1988. Detergent-amplified chemiluminescence of lucigenin for determination of superoxide anion production by NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase. Anal Biochem 169: 262-270
  53. Oei HH, Stroo WE, Burton KP, Schaffer SW. 1982. A possible role of xanthine oxidase in producing oxidative stress in the heart of chronically ethanol treated rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 38: 454-461
  54. Sharma GR, Gill KD. 1991. Effects of ethanol on Cd- induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rat liver. Biochem Pharm 42: 89-96
  55. Sunde RA, Hoekstra WG. 1990. Structure, synthesis and function of glutathione peroxidase. Nutr Rev 38: 269-273
  56. Antonenkov VD, Panchenko LF. 1988. Effect of chronic ethanol treatment under partial catalase inhibition on the activity of enzymes related to peroxide metabolism in rat liver and heart. Int J Biochem 20: 823-828
  57. Kino M. 1986. Chronic effects of ethanol under partial inhibition of catalase activity in the rat heart: Light and electron microscopic observation. J Mol Cell Cardiol 8: 22A-32A
  58. Nanji AA, Zakim D. 1995. Alcoholic liver disease. In Hepatology. 3rd ed. Zakim D, Boyer T, eds. Saunders, Phil- adelphia. Vol 3, p 891-936
  59. Fridovich I. 1989. Superoxide dismutase. An adaptation to paramagnetic gas. J Biol Chem 264: 7761-7764
  60. Gregory EM, Fridovich I. 1972. Function of superoxide dismutase by molecular oxygen. J Bacteriol 114: 534-541
  61. Keen CL, Tamura T, Lpnnerdal B, Hurley LS, Halsted CH. 1985. Changes in hepatic superoxide dismutase activity in alcoholic monkeys. Am J Clin Nutr 41: 929-932
  62. Hilton JW, Hodson PV, Slinger SJ. 1980. The requirement and toxicity of selenium in rainbow trout (Salmo Gairdeneri). J Nutr 110: 2527-2532
  63. Tietze F. 1969. Enzymatic method for quantitative determination of monogram amounts of total and oxidized glutathione. Anal Biochem 27: 502-522
  64. Flohe L, Gulzer WA, Schock HH. 1973. Glutathione peroxidase a seleno enzyme. FEBS Lett 32: 132-138
  65. Oh SH, Ganther HE, Hoekstra WG. 1974. Selenium as component of glutathine peroxidase isolated from ovine erythrocytes. Biochem 13: 1825-1834
  66. Speisky H, Kera Y, Penttila KE, Israel Y, Lindros KO. 1988. Depletion of hepatic glutathine by ethanol occurs independently of ethanol metabolism. Alchol Clin Exp Res 12: 224-28
  67. Yunice AA, Hsu JM. 1986. Alcohol. In Nutritional aspects of aging. Chen LH, ed. CRC Press, Washington, DC. Vol 2, p 19-27
  68. Harata J, Ishiguro I. 1983. Effect of prolonged alcohol administration on activities of various enzymes scavenging activated oxygen radicals and lipid peroxide level in the rat livers. Biochem Pharma 32: 1975-1988
  69. Cheigh HS. 1994. Lipid peroxidation and its nutritional significance. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 23: 867-871
  70. Brown PC, Thurman RG, Belinsky SA, Kauffman FC. 1991. Effect of ally alcohol on xanthine dehydrogenase activity in the perfused rat liver. Toxicol Lett 58: 1-6
  71. Lasini AF, Pompella A, Comporti M. 1985. Liver glutathione depletion induced by bromobenzene, iodobenzene and diethymalate poisoning and its relation to lipid peroxidation and necrosis. Am J Pathol 118: 225-537
  72. Richie JP, Yvonne L, Saudhamini P, Virgina Malloy NO, Jay AX. 1994. Methionine reaction on increases blood glutathione and longevity in F344 rats. FASEB J 8: 1302- 1307
  73. Fernandez-Checa JC, Ookhtens M, Kapowia N. 1987. Effect of chronic ethanol feeding on rat hepatocytic glutathione compartmentation, frrlux, and response to incubation with ethanol. J Clin Invest 80: 57-62
  74. Vina J, Estrella JM, Guerro C, Romero FJ. 1980. Effect of ethanol on glutathione concentration in isolated hepatocytes. Biochem J 188: 549-552
  75. Speisky H, Macdonald A, Giles G, Orrego H, Israd Y. 1985. Increased loss and decreased synthesis of hepatic glutathione after acute ethanol administration. Boichem J 225: 565-572
  76. Aykac C, Uysal M, Yalcin S, Kocak-Tokar N, Sivas A, Oz H. 1985. The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on hepatic lipid peroxide, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in rats. Toxicol 36: 71-76
  77. Videla LA, Fernandez V, Valenzuela A, Ugarte G. 1981. The effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on free radical defense in the immature pig. Pharmacology 22: 343-348

피인용 문헌

  1. Antimicrobial Activity on Respiration Diseases Inducing Bacteria and Antioxidant Activity of Water Extracts from Wild Edible Vegetables vol.27, pp.2, 2012,
  2. Analysis of Genetic and Biogeography Diversity of Korean Indigenous Wild Rocambole (<i>Allium monanthum</i> Max) vol.04, pp.05, 2013,