Detection of Radiation-Induced Hydrocarbons in Green, Black and Oolong Teas

  • Kausar, Tusneen (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Lee, Jung-Eun (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Noh, Jung-Eun (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kwon, Young-Ju (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kwon, Joong-Ho (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University)
  • 발행 : 2004.09.01


Hydrocarbons induced by gamma-irradiation of green, black, and oolong teas were analyzed to determine whether the hydrocarbons can be used as markers for detecting post-irradiation of these teas. The samples were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. Detection was attempted by extracting fat from the teas, separation of hydrocarbons with florisil column chromatography, and identification of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Concentration of hydrocarbons increased with the irradiation dose. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated green, black, and oolong teas were 1-tetradecence (14:1), pentadecane (15:0), 1,7-hexadecadiene (16:2), 1-hexadecene (16:1), 8-heptadecene (17:1), and heptadecane (17:0). Radiation-induced hydrocarbons in teas were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene. These compounds were not detected in non-irradiated samples, so the hydrocarbons (16:2, 17:1) can be used as markers for detecting post-irradiation of the teas. Furthermore, detection of hydrocarbons after 12 months storage at room temperature remains a suitable method for identifying irradiated teas.


  1. IAEA. 2001. IAEA homepage.
  2. Morehouse KM, Ku Y. 1992. Gas chromatographic and electron spin resonance investigatios in irradiated shrimp. J Agric Food Chem 40: 1963-1970
  3. Pinnioja S, Autio T, Niemi E, Pensala O. 1993. Import control of irradiated food by the thermoluminescence method. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 196: 111-115
  4. Khan HM, Delince H. 1998. Detection of irradiation treatment of foods using DNA comet assay. Radiat Phys Chem 52: 141-144
  5. Oh KN, Lee HJ, Yang JS. 2002. Screening of gamma- irradiated medicinal herbs by using a microbiological method (DEFT/APC). Food Sci Biotechnol 11: 507-510
  6. Schreiber GA, Schulzki G, Spiegelberg A, Helle N, Bgl KW. 1994. Evaluation of a gas chromatographic method to identify irradiated chicken, pork, and beef by detection of volatile hydrocarbons. J AOAC Int 77: 1202-1217
  7. Nawar WW. 1978. Reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of fat: a review. J Agric Food Chem 26:21-25
  8. Choi CR, Hwang KT. 1997. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated and roasted sesame seeds. J Am Oil Chem Soc 74: 469-472.
  9. Hwang KT. 1999a. Hydrocarbons detected in irradiated pork, bacon and ham. Food Res Int 32: 389-394
  10. Nawar WW, Balboni JJ. 1970. Detection of irradiated treatment in foods. J Am Oil Chem Soc 53: 726-729
  11. Morehouse KM, Ku Y. 1993. Identification of irradiated foods by monitoring radiolytically produced hydrocarbons. Radiat Phys Chem 42: 359-362
  12. Lee HJ, Lee MY, Kim KS. 1999. Detection of radiation- induced hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones from peanuts. J Food Sci Nutr 4: 270-275
  13. Lee HJ, Byun MW, Kim KS. 2000. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated perilla seeds. J Food Proc 63: 1563-1569
  14. Hwang KT, Yoo JH, Kim CK, Uhm TB, Kim SB, Park HJ. 2001. Hydrocarbons detected in irradiated and heat- treated eggs. Food Res Int 34: 321-328
  15. Park ER, Kim EA, Kim KS. 2001. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanonones from irradiated pork. Food Sci Biotechnol 10: 84-89
  16. Chung HW, Delince H, Han SB, Hang JH, Kim HY, Kwon JH. 2002. Characteristics of DNA comet, photostimulated luminescence, Thermoluminescence and hydrocarbon in perilla seeds exposed to electron beam. J Food Sci 67: 2517-2522
  17. Kwon JH, Kausar T, Lee J, Ahn DU. 2003. Identification of hydrocarbons in irradiated meat products with different fat extraction methods. ISU/KSU/ASU Food Safety Consortium. October 13-14, Arkansas (Internet abstract)
  18. Nakabayashi T. 1991. Chemical components in tea leaves. In Chemistry and function of green tea, black tea, and oolong tea (in Japanese). Nakabayashi T, Ina K, Sakata K, eds. Koguku Shuppan, Kawasaki, Japan. p 20
  19. Nawar WW. 1986. Volatiles form food irradiation. Food Rev Int 21:45-78
  20. Biedermann M, Grob K, Fr?hlich D, Meier W. 1992. On- line coupled liquid chromatography-gaschromatograpy (LC- GC) and LC-LC-GC for detecting irradiation of fat-containing foods. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 195: 409-416
  21. Grob K, Biedermann M, Artho A, Egli J. 1991. Food contamination by hydrocarbons form packaging materials determined by coupled LC-GC. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 193: 213-219
  22. Lembke P, Brnert J, Engelhardt H. 1995. Characterization of irradiated food by SFE and GC-MSD. J Agric Food Chem 43: 38-45
  23. Schulzki G, Speigelberg A, Helle N, Bgl KW, Schreiber GA. 1993. On-line coupled LC-LC-GC for irradiated detection in complex lipid matrices. SozEp-Hefte 16: 55-60
  24. Morehouse KM, Ku Y, Albrecht HL, Yang GC. 1991. Gas chromatographic and electron spin resonance investigations of gamma-irradiated frog legs. Radiat Phys Chem 38: 61-68
  25. Hartmann M, Ammon J, Berg H. 1995. Nachweis einer Strahlenbehandlung in weiterverarbeiteten Lebensmitteln anhand der Analytik strahleninduzierter Kohlenwasserstoffe. D Lebensm Rundsch 91: 277-281
  26. Nawar WW. 1983b. Comparison of chemical consequences of heat and irradiation treatment of lipids. In Recent advances in food irradiation. Elias PS, Cohen AJ, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam. p 115-127
  27. Nawar WW. 1988. Analysis of volatiles as a method for the identification of irradiated foods. In Health impact, identification, and dosimetry of irradiated foods. Bgl KW, Regulla DF, Suess MJ, eds. Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin ISH-Heft 125. p 287-296
  28. Lesgards G, Raffi J, Pouliquen I, Chaouch A, Giamarchi P, Prost M. 1993. Use of radiation-induced alkanes and alkenes to detect irradiated food containing lipids. J Am Oil Chem Soc 70: 179-185
  29. Hartmann M, Ammon J, Berg H. 1997. Determination of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in processed food and complex lipid matrics. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch A 204: 231-236
  30. Noleau I, Toulemonde B. 1987. Volatile components of roasted chicken fat. Lebensm Wiss Technol 20: 37-41
  31. Merritt CJ, Angelini P, Graham RA. 1978. Effect of radiation parameters on the formation of radiolysis products in meant and meat substances. J Agric Food Chem 26: 29-33
  32. Nawar WW, Zhu AR, Yoo YJ. 1990. Radiolytic products of lipids as marker for the detection of irradiated meat. In Food Irradiation and the Chemistry. Johnston DE, Stevenson MH, eds. The Royal Society of Chemistry, London. p 13-24
  33. Villavicenio ALCH, Mancini-Filho J, Hartmann M, Ammon J, Delince H. 1997. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing. J Agric Food Chem 45: 4215- 4220

피인용 문헌

  1. The identification of irradiated seasoned filefish (Thamnaconus modestus) by different analytical methods vol.76, pp.11-12, 2007,