- Volume 13 Issue 7
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Comparison of Household Trihalomethanes (THMs) Exposure Associated with Use of Municipal Tap Water Treated with Chlorine or Ozone-Chlorine
염소살균과 오존-염소살균 수도수의 사용과 관련한 가정 트리할로메탄 노출 비교평가
- Published : 2004.07.01
Evaluated were household THMs exposure associated with the use of municipal tap water treated with chlorine and with ozone-chlorine. The current study measured the THMs concentrations in the tap water and indoor and outdoor air in the two types of household, along with an estimation of THMs exposure from water ingestion, showering, and the inhalation of indoor air. Chloroform was the most abundant THMs in all three media, yet no bromoform was detected in any sample. Contrary to previous findings, the fall water THMs concentrations exhibited no significant difference between the chlorine and ozone-chlorine treated water. However, the spring median chloroform concentration in the tap water treated with chlorine (17.6 ppb) was 1.3 times higher than that in the tap water treated with ozone-chlorine (13.4 ppb). It is suggested that the effects of the water parameters should be considered when evaluating the advantage of ozone-chlorine disinfection for THMs formation over chlorine disinfection. The indoor air THMs concentration trend was also consistent with the water concentration trend, yet the outdoor air THMs concentrations did not differ significantly between the two types of household. The indoor to outdoor air concentration ratios were comparable with previous studies. The THMs exposure estimates from water ingestion, showering, and the inhalation of indoor air suggested that, for the residents living in the surveyed households, their exposure to THMs in the home was mostly associated with their household water use, rather than the indoor air. The THMs exposure estimates from tap water ingestion were similar to those from showering.
Chlorine;Household water use;Inhalation;Indoor air;Ozone-chlorine
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